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Flashcards in Psychology exam 2 Deck (78):
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Hans Berger-1920

Frequency and intensity
Discovered the (EEG) electroencephalogram in 1920

1

Aserinski -1950

Discovered sleep cycle and REM sleep
1. Beta waves - low intensity ,very high frequency waves . Relaxed in preparation for sleep.
2. Alpha waves drowsiness but not yet asleep. Calm or meditative state.

2

JB Watson

Classical conditioning with emotions ( Albert and rat)
Used paired association

3

John Garcia

Good aversion

4

Ivan Pavlov

Classical conditioning

5

Julian Rotter

Locus of control
The role of expectations in learning
Internalizers are more successful students

6

Martin seligman-

Learned helplessness
The role of beliefs in learning
(3 dog experiment

7

Albert Bandura

Observational Learning ( Modeling)
Someone observes a behavior sequence a mental representation is formed
The role of schemas in learning
-attend
-remember
-capable of doing the actions
-expect reinforcement for behavior performance
( aggressive children video )

8

Hobson

Activation/synthesis; awareness of the brains internally generated signals during sleep ( pet scanner)

Dreams have no meaning

9

Carl hung

The unconscious mind is helpful and dream content must be amplified to be understood

Dreams make us whole and individuality.
Amplification

10

Freud

Dreams are the symbolic manifestation of repressed urges, wishes and desires

Manifest and latent content
Free association

11

Fixed ratio

Vending machine
Every time time behavior there is a reinforcer
Good to start off but not continue

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Variable ratio

Slot machine gambler
Behavior difficult to extinct
Continue behavior without knowing when it will be reinforced but possible at any time ( chance of winning)

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Fixed interval

Reinforced during set passage of time
( doesn't matter how many times they do the behavior)

-Pay Check

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Variable Interval

Intervals between reinforcers Varies.
Don't know how long or when there will be reinforcement
( waiting for a call from attractive person/job) ( fishing )

Not efficient

15

Behavior Shaping

Reinforcing successively closer approximations of the desired behaviors until behaviors is achieved
( training dog to open trash can in 20 min)

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Application ( Martin Seligman)

Exposure to uncontrollable aversive evens can produce passivity and learned helplessness.

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Sensation

Detection of basic stimuli from the environment through the senses , sound, visual objects and odors .

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Transduction

Form of physical energy is converted into a neural code that can be processed by the nervous system

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Sensory thresholds

Smallest possible strength of a stimuli that can be detected half the time

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Difference thresholds ( JND)

Smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected half the time

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Webers law

Size of a JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus

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Sensory adaption

Gradual decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus
(Seasoning in food)
(Temperature in a pool)

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Perception

Process by which the brain organizes , I terpenes and relates new data to existing knowledge

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Top down perceptions

Conceptually given
(Prior knowledge )

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Bottom up

Generate perception based on the constituent parts data given

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Gestalt

The unified whole is different from the sum of parts
( mind try's to see everything as whole )

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Max Wertheimer

Principles of perception
Similarity
Closure
Continuity
Proximity
Figure ground

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Similarity

Similar things are perceived as being related

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Proximity

Closeness of the item

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Continuity

Expectations that movements will continue in a given direction

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Closure

Filling in a missing piece
(Circle)

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Subliminal perception

Presented below absolute threshold ( not detectable )
Can bias a persons emotions thoughts and attitudes about something temporarily

33

Sleep

Awake but meditative state- beta
Stage 1- alpha high freq low intensity
Stage 2- alpha / sleep spindle
Stage 3 - theta / delta
Stage 4 Delta low freq high intensity
Rem

34

Sleep paralysis

Paralyzed during Rem Sleep

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Stage 4 Delta non rem sleep does what

Restores body

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Rem sleep consolidates what

Memory

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Insomnia

Inability to initiate or maintain sleep

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Sleep apnea

Interrupted sleep breathing

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Somnambulism

Sleep walking ( 25% of children have one episode )

40

Rem sleep behavior disorder

Brain fails to suppress voluntary movement
(Patient acts out dreams)

41

Narcolepsy

Cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep, attacks, sleep paralysis

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Hobson physiological views

Activation occurs in the pond as a dream generator
Stimulates:
Reticular (alertness)
Oculomor ( movement of eyeballs)
Vestibular( sence of balance and movement )


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3 states of consciousness

Sleep , wakefulness and dreams

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Dissociation

( splitting off your perception in life )
-Day dreaming

45

Amplification

What does the symbol mean in art, religion and folk care

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Addiction

Tolerance and withdrawal

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Tolerance

Increasing amounts of a substance needed to get the desired effect

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Withdrawal

Person gets sick when the substance is discontinued

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LD-50

Lethal dose at which 50% of test subjects die

50

Leaning

A relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience

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Classical conditioning

Establishing conditions under which a specific behavior is more likely to occur

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Reflex

A simple involuntary response to a specific stimuli

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Extinction

Eliminating a learned response

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Extinction burst

- intense frequency burst of the behavior ( show balloon in face)

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Higher order conditioning

Means that a well established CS can be used as an UCS to produce a new conditioned response

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Stimulus generalization

Other stimuli relates to CS cause the same CR

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Discrimination stimulus

only the CS can cause the CR nothing similar ( cat food and cabinet door)

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Frequency-

How often
The more pairing of the neutral and the UCS the stronger the CR

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Timing

1/2 second between presentation is the neutral and UCS is ideal

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Food aversion

Violates two rules of classical conditioning
*long time between pairings (hours not minutes
*single trial learning (one time)

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Biological preparedness

- individual becomes averse to the food not the plate or other neutral stimuli which are present during exposure
-not everything a become a CS for food aversions

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Consciousness

Personal awareness of mental activity , internal sensations, and the world around us
( can associate taste but not pain with nausea)

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Alertness varies by degree

Peaks at 8-9am and pm
Lows at 3pm and 3am

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Circadian Rhythms

Variations in body states that occurs over a 24 hour period
Consciousness = alertness

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Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Bodies clock within the hypothalamus
(Light stimulates the optic nerves which are monitored by the SCN) Diminishes Melatonin

66

Free running

The effect of being disconnected from indications of date, day and hour

(Circadian erythema become desynchronized)

67

Average sleep

8 1/2

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Operant conditioning

Being rewarded for a behavior

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What is reinforcement

A reinforcer is anything that causes a behavior to reoccur

70

What did Skinner Discover

Animal behavior patters can be modified by controlling the consequence

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Two types of reinforcement

Positive and negative

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Positive reinforcement

Means a reward (behavior will continue)

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Negative reinforcement

Aversive stimuli , something we will act to avoid or escape
( nagging kids to wash dishes)

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Punishment

To stop a behavior from reoccurring
(Temporary fix)

75

Interval schedules

A passage/unit of time

76

Cognitions

Belief and attitudes

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Skinner

Operant conditioning