Psychology: Learning and Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology: Learning and Memory Deck (64):
1

Ivan Pavlov

Worked with classical conditioning

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classical conditioning

Association between neutral stimulus and unconditional stimulus

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aquisition

How long it takes and organism to learn association between NS and UCS

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generalization

Responding to similar stimuli

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discrimination

Not responding so similar stimuli

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extinction

Unlearning of or lack of learned response

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spontaneous recovery

Revival of an extinguished response

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John Watson

Brought classical conditioning to the U.S. Worked with baby Albert

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flooding

Forcing someone to directly face his/her fears

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systematic desensitization

A person is taught relaxation techniques and then gradually faced with what they are afraid of

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counterconditioning

Associates fear with pleasant feelings to face it

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operant conditioning

the consequences of behavior operate or produce effects on the environment

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B.F. Skinner

Created theory of operant conditioning

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positive reinforcement

Increases behavior by introducing something good

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negative reinforcement

Increases behavior by taking away something bad

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punishment

Decreases behavior by introducing something unwanted

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fixed ratio

A fixed number of target responses must be completed before a reward is gained

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variable ratio

The number of target behaviors for reward keeps changing

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fixed interval

The first target response completed after a fixed interval of time is rewarded

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variable interval

The length of interval for reward changes after time

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shaping

Reinforcing small increments of behavior

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chaining

When small behaviors are linked together

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learned helplessness

A decrease in responding that occurs after exposure to uncontrollable negative events

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social cognitive learning

Learning can occur by thinking about situations or by observing others

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E.C. Tolman

First psychologist to report social cognitive learning

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latent learning

Learning that appears not to have been retained at the time of conditioning but it is displayed at a later time

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Albert Bandura

Developed observational learning theory

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observational learnind

learning by watching others

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memory

The process by which we are able to retain and retrieve information and the structures that allow us to do it

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Information Processing Model

Views humans as computers that encode, store, and retrieve information

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sensory memory

sensory register

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visual stimuli

Last one-tenth of a second, make up iconic memory

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auditory stimuli

Last for 3-4 seconds, make up echoic memory

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short-term memory

Also called working memory, limited capacity

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chunking

Process by which we group similar information into meaningful units

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long-term memory

Permanent part of memory, unlimited capacity

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engrams

Information stored in long-term memory

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shallow/surface/maintenance processing

Memorizing, not very effective

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deep/elaborative processing

Connecting new information with already learned information or with devices that allow information to be retrieved from memory more easily

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serial position effect

Memorizing at the beginning of a list (primary effect) and words at the end of the list (recency effect) better than words in the middle of the list

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episodic

Memories of personally experienced events

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semantic

Memories of general factual knowledge

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procedural

Memories of how to do something

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explicit/declaritve

memories of which we are consciously aware of

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implicit/non-declaritive

Memories of which we are not consciously aware of

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flashbulb

Memories that surround big events and bring out a multitude of other memories

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mnemonics

Devices that allow memory to be retrieved more easily

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retrieval

The process of obtaining information from memory

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state dependent

The need to be in the same state as information was input to retrieve information

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context

The need to be in the same place as information was learned to remember learned information

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reconstruction

The process of filling in the gaps of memory

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eyewitness accounts

What and how a witness is questioned can bias results

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Elizabeth Loftus

Main researcher of eyewitness accounts

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forgetting

The inability to retrieve information from memory

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interference

Old information and new information conflict eachother

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proactive

Old information interferes with new information

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retroactive

New information interferes with old information

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tip of the tongue syndrome

Stress builds a mental black that prevents retrieval for a period of time

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childhood amnesia

Memories are not formed until about the age of three

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repression

Memories are pushed into subconscious

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frontal lobes

Involved in short term memory tasks

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temporal lobes

Involved in the encoding of words and pictures

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cerebellum

Involved in the formation and retention of classically conditioned responses

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hippocampus

Involved in formation of long-term memory