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Flashcards in Psychology of dysfunction Deck (23)
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1
Q

Define dispositional characteristics and explain their importance

A

A persons individual character traits

They determine how a person will act in certain situations

2
Q

Why is self regulation important to sport performance

A

Determines your emotions, cognitions and behaviours in response to events

3
Q

Explain the concept of a cognitive schema

A

A framework, based on preconceived ideas developed due to previous history and experiences.

Allows us to interpret information quickly

A rule system of how to act in certain situations so alters how view world and self

Highly resistant to change

4
Q

Explain the concept of a self perpetuating schema

A

Person will look for evidence to validate their schema

They will disregard information which contradicts it

Resulting in a distorted view of the world

5
Q

What is the function of a schema

A

New info easier and quicker to process becaus can be generalised

Protection because realise threatening situations which are similar to previous ones

Helps to maintain interpersonal relationships

6
Q

What does schema driven behaviour look like

A

Rigid

Intense when scheme under threat

7
Q

How does the perfectionism schema develop

A

Parents only show conditional regard for child

Child only rewarded for a perfect performance and therefore have th desire to be perfect in all aspects

8
Q

What are the sporting consequences of maladaptive perfectionism

A

Worries about disappointing coach

Focus on mistakes made

Has difficulty forgetting mistake

Intrusive thoughts about mistake

Self talk about the mistake

9
Q

Describe how the schema acts in the preparation phase of sporting performance

A

Interacts with the environment (e.g away ground) and the sporting event (e.g important game)

Certain conditions will challenge the schema and could be negative for performance

10
Q

Describe how the schema works during sorting performance

A

Persons schema will determine how they interpret the challenge they’re facing

If have a negative affect towards it they will focus on irrelevant stimuli and have dysfunctional performance

If have a positive affect towards it they will be focused on relevant stimuli, will have a good level of arrousal and therefore a functional performance

11
Q

Describe the process of self regulation

A

Monitor environment for threats

Evaluate situation against own norms e.g how you think things should happen

Adjust behaviour or reactions accordingly

12
Q

Generally speaking why does failure of self regulation lead to performance dysfunction

A

Usually happens without person thinking about

Failure means they start to think about these things so not focused on relevant stimuli

13
Q

Describe the model for self regulation failure

Who proposed this model

A

High ego/esteemed position/well respected athlete so has high expectations

Failure would cause ego threat or threat to self worth

Causes emotional distress or anxiety

Distracts the person because not focusing on performance

Self regulation failure occurs with avoidance or counterproductive strategies

Baumeister 1997

14
Q

Explain the concept of valence with regards to penalties and why it’s important

Who said it

A

Valence is the attractiveness of an outcome of a penalty

Jordet and Hartman defined a positive valence pen as one which wins the shootout if scored and a negative as one which loses the shootout if missed

Valence of the pen alters the level of ego threat
92% scored if +ve
62% scored if -ve

Jordet and Hartman 2008

15
Q

Explain the link between past performance and penalty performance

Who said it

A

If team has previously not done well them the team is likely to perform badly again

Because players are more aware of consequences therefore have a bigger threat to ego

More wins in shootouts previously = more scored in current shootouts

> 1 previous win = 89% scored
2 previous losses = 57% scored

Jordet et al 2012

16
Q

Describe the 4 stages of emotional distress during s shootout

A

1+2. Waiting to take your pen. All out of your control and nothing to focus on so highly distressing

  1. Walking to take pen. Have some control now so distress decreases
  2. Putting ball on spot so control and takes to focus on so distress decreases again
17
Q

What is the link between waiting time and penalty success rate

Who said it

A

Longer time waiting for ref to blow whistle = less success

0 seconds = 90% scored

1-5 seconds = 61% scored

Jordet and Eiferink-Gemser 2006

18
Q

Describe the differences in cardiovascular response when a person is in a threat situation vs a challenge situation

What is the significance of this

A

In a threat situ a person has a relatively lower cardiac output and relatively higher tpr

This reduces blood and glucose delivery to muscles which may negatively impact performance

19
Q

What were the findings of the turner study on threat vs challenged states

A

Using cricket batting performance showed that mor runs are scored if in a challenged state

And that a higher TPR was associated with a lower score

20
Q

Describe how potential performance dysfunction should be considered in the post performance phase

A

Need to differentiate between unsatisfactory performance and performance dysfunction

Need to address any performance and try to overcome this

21
Q

Describe the two possible causes of chronic dysfunction

A

Avoidant coping style where a person avoids situations because of fear of failure

Exoeriencial avoidance where a person avoids something because of a previous bad experience in a similar situ

22
Q

What were the findings of the paper by Jordet in 2009

A

More pens were scored by players pre-award than by those who already had an award. Award players already scored less than ‘no status’ players (65% vs 89% vs 74%)

England players, 60% back to goal, known to be shit at pens
59% scored when ball on spot 0-0.2 second
78%. When ball on spot 0.8-1 second

England average of 0.25 secs, Germany average of 0.6

23
Q

What is the definition of choking under pressure

A

Performing worse than expected in situations with a high degree of perceived importance