Psychology Test 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology Test 3 Deck (157):
1

What is developmental psychology

Studies how humans change across the life span (from the cradle to the grave)

2

What are the two core issues of developmental psychology

1. Interaction of nature and nurture
2. The nature of change (how it occurs)

3

What is the critical period of the nature- nurture interaction

The period of special sensitivity to specific types of learning and sensory stimulation

4

What is continuous change

Gradual alteration of behavior (more prevalent in adulthood)

5

What is discontinuous change

Qualitatively different stages more obvious in adulthood

6

What is social development

Changes in interpersonal behaviors, feeling and thoughts across the lifespan

7

What is attachment

An enduring emotional tie between child and caretaker

8

What are the three components of attachment

1. Desire for proximity to the caretaker
2. Sense of security around the caretaker
3. Feelings of distress when the caretaker is absent

9

What is Harlows attachment studies

Psychologists linked attachment to feeding
-infant monkeys were taken from their mother and given fake mothers, one was wire that provides food and one was terrycloth that didn’t, monkeys ate from the wire mother but was attached to the terrycloth mother

10

What are the four patterns of attachment in humans

1.secure: child is distresses when mother leaves and relieved when mother returns
2. Avoidant: child ignores the mother and avoids exploration
3. Anxious-ambivalent : child exhibits anger at mother while seeking to be close to her
4.Disorganized: child may show dazed facial expressions and stereotyped rocking (found in high risk kids)

11

What are the prevalence rates of childhood attachments in adults

1.secure = 60%
2.avoidant = 25%
3.anxious = 10%
4 unresolved = 5%

12

What is Piagets theory

Epistemology: a branch of philosophy concerned with the acquisition of knowledge

13

What is assimilation

Interpreting new information in terms of ones present schemas

14

What is accommodation

Process by which old schemas are modified to fit reality

15

What is the sensorimotor stage

Ages 0-2, object permanence forms and child becomes egocentric

16

What is object permanence

Realization that an object continuous to exist in time and space even though it cannot be seen

17

What is egocentrism

Children understand only their point of view

18

What is the preoperational stage

Age 2-7, Object permanence is firmly established, child does not understand conservation

19

What is concrete operational

Age 7-12, child begins to understand conservation and can apply it

20

What is conservation

Understanding the basic properties of an object are constant even if the object changes shape

21

What happens as we age

1. In the mid 20s processing speed slows
2. Retrieval of LTM becomes hard and working memory declines
3. Fluid intelligence declines and crystallized intelligence increases
4. Specific cognitive abilities diminish

22

What percent of adults meet the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease and what percent of major NCD is caused by Alzheimer’s

About 5% of adults meet the criteria and about 60 to 80% cases are caused by Alzheimer’s

23

What happens during Alzheimer’s

Protein deposits and a loss of the acetylcholine, the greater the cell loss in the temporal lobes the greater degree of cognitive impairment.

24

What are the most obvious signs Of Alzheimer’s in the brain

The ventricle becomes large and the gyri reduces in size as the sulci increases in size due to cell loss

25

What is psychopathology

Problematic problems of thought, feeling, or behavior that disrupt a persons welling being and negatively impacts social, emotional, academic and occupational functioning

26

What are the 3 broad classes of psychopathology

1. Neuroses
2. Personality disorders
3. Psychoses

27

What is neuroses

Minor problems that cause anxiety and mild interpersonal and occupational functioning

28

What is personality disorders

Chronic disturbances that impair interpersonal and occupational functioning

29

What is psychoses

Sever disturbances of contact with reality

30

what is morality

rules people use to balance the conflicting interest of themselves and others

31

what is the Kohlberg theory

changes in moral reasoning reflect changes in cognitive stuctures

32

what is the psychodynamic perspectives

3 broad classes of psychopathology from a continuum of functioning from minimal to serious disturbance

33

what is the cognitive behavioral perspective

integration of classical and operant conditioning within. cognitive social perspective, focus on the discrete process, assess the environmental stimuli that elicits symptoms

34

what is the biological approach

psychopathology is a disease of the brain
1. disturbance of neurotransmitters
2. Dysfunctional neural circuts
3. gross pathology of the brain

35

what is the diathesis stress model

people develop a disorder when they
1. have an underlying vulnerability (diathesis) and 2. when they experience some psychological or environmental disturbance (stress)

36

what is the systems approach

explains an individuals behavior in the broader social context of social group. the group functions as a system with interdependent parts ( a change in one member influences other members)

37

what is ADHD

symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity,, and or impulsive persisting for at least 6 months to a degree that manipulative and inconsistent with developmental level

38

what is inattention

non responsiveness to task demands

39

what is hyperactivity

movement greater than required for accomplishing task

40

what is impulsivity

failure to inhibit behavior

41

when should the symptoms of ADHD be shown

in children prior to age 12, and be conducted in two or more setting

42

what is the prevalence of ADHD

about 5% in school aged children and 2.5% in adults (more common in males)

43

what are the risk factors of ADHD

low SES, severe marital discord, maternal psychopathology, paternal criminality

44

what is the underarousal hypothesis

there is insufficient inhibitory control over sensory input and motor output

45

what is the most common treatment for ADHD

stimulants

46

what are some future problems for children with ADHD

they are at risk for other problems as they grow up

47

what is the DSM-5 criteria for conduct disorder

1. aggression
2. destruction of property
3. deceitfulness or theft
4. serious violation of rules

48

what is the prevalence rate of conduct disorder

about 6-16% of boys, 2-9% girls

49

what is the etiology of conduct disorder

(nature - nurture interaction) an unstable home environment is particularly dangerous to children who are genetically vulnerable

50

what is schizophrenia

a heterogenous clinical syndrome that involves a range of cognitive, behavioral and emotional dsyfunctions associated with impaired social and occupational functioning

51

what is the prevalence rate of schizophrenia

about 1% of people have it

52

how many people fully recover from schizophrenia

about 10 to 20% of people recover

53

what is the DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia

1. two or more symptoms of psychosis (hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech)
2. duration of symptoms for at least 6 months
3. marked deterioration from individuals previous self
4. the disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance

54

what are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

reduction in normal behavior or emotions

55

what is affective flattening

restrictions in the range/ intensity of emotional expression

56

what is algoia

restrictions in the fluency/ productivity of thought and speech

57

what is avolition

Restrictions in the initiation of goal directed behavior

58

what are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia

excess in sensory perception and ideas

59

what are some biological causes of schizophrenia

1. genes
2. Prenatal/ delivery complications
3. hypoxia

60

what is expressed emotion

family interactions characterized by criticism hostile comments and emotional intrusiveness

61

how does expressed emotion affect people with schizophrenia

affected individuals living in a home with high EE have a higher risk of relapsing and rehospitalization (about 65-75%) compared to people who live in low EE home who have a lower risk of relapse

62

what is MDD

Characterized by depressive mood and loss of interest in pleasurable activities (anhedonia)

63

what is the DSM-5 criteria for MDD

must have 5 of the 9 symptoms in the same 2 weeks and must of have one of #1 or #2
1. Depressed mood
2. anhedonia
3. Significant weight loss or gain and increase/ decrease of appetite
4. Insomnia or hypersomnia
5. psychomotor agitation or retardation
6.fatigue
7.feelings of worthlessness or guilt
8.can concentrate or make decisions
9. thoughts of death or suicide

64

what are the biological theories of depression

1.genetics
2. neurotransmission
3.hormones
4. brain regions

65

how does genetics affect MDD

Family history of depression triples a persons risk of developing MDD

66

how do neurotransmitters affect MDD

MDD is associated with abnormalities in serotonin and norepinephrine

67

how do hormones affect MDD

Hypothyroidism and over activation of the HPA axis

68

how do the brain regions affect MDD

hippocampal damage (due to an increase in cortisol)
overactivity in the right frontal lobe
under activity in the left frontal lobe

69

what is Beck negative triad theory

interpret events unfavorably
do not like themselves
regard the future

70

what is etiology of phobias

1. biological - abnormalities in serotonin and dopamine pathways in the limbic system and lower levels of GABA causes anxiety provoking reactions
2. behavioral- classical conditioning

71

what is the DSM-5 criteria for Dissociative disorders

1.disruption of identity characterized by two or more distinct personality traits
2. recurrent gaps in memory of everyday events, personal information, and traumatic events
3. cause impairment in life
4. not a cultural or religious thing
5. not caused by another underlying condition or substance

72

what is the etiology of DID

a child has a trauma at the age of 4-6, is not hypnotizable then the person uses other coping mechanisms, is hypnotizable then the person develops a second personality which bears the burden of the trauma and creates a new personality for every future trauma

73

what is personality disorder

stable, persuasive and maladaptive ways of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the world and ones self

74

what are cluster A personality disorders

>odd or eccentric
1. paranoid
2. schizoid
3. schizotypal

75

what is paranoid

distrust and suspiciousness

76

what is schizoid

detachment from social relationships, restricted ranges of emotional expression

77

what is schizotypal

acute discomfort in close relationship, cognitive or perceptual distortions eccentricity

78

what are type cluster B personality type

- dramatic, emotional or erratic
1. antisocial
2. borderline
3.histrionic
4.narcissistic

79

what is antisocial

disregard for and violation of the rights of others

80

what is borderline

Impulsivity and instability in interpersonal relationships, self concept and emotion

81

what is histrionic

excessive emotionality and attention seeking

82

what is narcissistic

grandiosity, need for attention and lack of empathy

83

what is type C cluster personality type

-anxious or fearful
1.avoidant
2.dependent
3. obsessive compulsive

84

what is avoidant type

social inhibition and avoidance, feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivity to negative emotion

85

what is dependent type

submissive and clinging behavior and excessive need to be taken care of

86

what is obsessive compulsive type

Preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and control

87

what is the information processing model

people make a series of sequential judgments to decide whether and act is immoral and whether is deserves punishment

88

what are the 4 sequential judgements

1. did the person cause the event
2. was the person morally responsible
3. is the person blameworthy
4. does the person deserve punishment

89

what is language

a system of symbols, sounds, meanings and rules that allows for communication among humans

90

what are the four dimensions of language

1. semantics
2. Syntactics
3. pragmatics
4. prosody

91

what is semantics

the words of a language and their meanings

92

what is syntactics

the grammar of language

93

what is pragmatics

the ways in which context conveys meaning

94

what is prosody

rhythm and intonation used to convey meaning (linguistics) or emotion (affective)

95

what Is the critical period off language

birth to 3 years old

96

what are phonemes

smallest units of sound that constitute speech

97

how are infants universally linguistic

they can detect differences between the speech sounds of any human

98

at what age do children become culturally bound language specialists

10 to 12 months

99

what are nonverbal communication

touch
gestures
body language
physical distance
facial expressions

100

What are the three techniques of the psychodynamic approach

Free association
Interpretation
Analysis of transference

101

What is free association

Patient says whatever comes to mind to reveal unconscious process involved in symptom formation

102

What is interpretation

Therapist interprets the patients thoughts, feelings, dreams, memories and wishes to reveal unconscious thoughts

103

What is analysis of transference

(Patient displaces conflicts from past relationships onto the therapist) and resistance ( barriers to therapy the patient creates to reduce anxiety )

104

What is the goal of the psychodynamic approach

To gain insight (understand the internal working of ones mind)

105

What is the focus of the humanistic therapies

Phenomenology ( the way each person consciously experiences the self, relationships and the world )

106

What is the goal of the humanistic approach

The goal is to help people get in touch with their feelings, their true selves, and a sense of meaning in life by listening empathically with unconditional positive regard

107

What is gastalt therapy

Focuses on the here and now and emphasis awareness of feelings (uses the empty chair technique)

108

What is the card rogers client centered therapy

People experience psychological difficulties when there concept of self is incongruent with their actual experience

109

What is the goal of the carl rogers client centered therapy

To help clients experience themselves as they actually are

110

What is systematic desensitization

The client confronts a feared stimulus mentally while in a relaxed state

111

What are the steps of systematic desensitization

-Therapist trains progressive muscle relaxation
-Construct a hierarchy of feared imagines stimuli
-While relaxing, the client imagines the least to most fearful of the images in the hierarchy
-Therapist encourages the client to confront his or hers fears in real life while monitoring their progress

112

What is exposure

Clients are exposed to the actual feared stimulus

113

What is flooding

The client confronts the phobic stimulus all at once (no hierarchy)

114

What is graded exposure

The client is exposed gradually to the feared stimulus (using hierarchy)

115

What is virtual reality

The client is exposed to virtual images of the feared stimulus

116

What is response prevention

All exposure techniques prevent the client from avoidance of the feared stimulus

117

What are the three operant techniques

Extinction
Punishment
Reinforcement

118

What is extinction

Removal of the source of reinforcement

119

What is punishment

Positively or negatively punish an undesired target behavior to decrease the probability of that behavior

120

What is participatory modeling

The therapist models the desired behavior and gradually induces the client to participate in it

121

What is skills training

Teach the behaviors necessary to accomplish relevant goals often involving interpersonal competence

122

What is the cognitive approach

What we think influences how we feel and how behave

123

What is the focus of the cognitive approach

Changing dysfunctional thought patterns

124

What is the Ellis rational emotive therapy

The ABC Theory
A-activating conditions
B- belief systems
C- emotional consequences

125

What is becks cognitive therapy

Therapist works on changing the clients cognitive distortions through a process called collaborative empiricism

126

What is the cognitive behavioral therapy

Integrates classical and operant conditioning within a social cognitive social perspective

127

What does CBT target

The clients maladaptive thoughts, behaviors and emotions

128

What is group therapy and what are the benefits

Multiple people work together toward a mutual therapeutic goal benefits because people will be will be with people with the same experiences and won’t experience shame

129

What is the focus of group therapy

Exploring the group process (the way member of the groups interact with each other)

130

What is the focus couple therapy

The marital unit or couple

131

What is the family systems approach

Looks for problematic interactions/ communication patterns

132

What is the behavioral approach

People stay in relationships when they receive more reinforcement than punishment

133

What is the goal of family therapy

Change maladaptive family interaction patterns

134

What is structural family therapy

Focuses on the organization of the family system and uses active interventions to disrupt dysfunctional patterns

135

How are genograms used

To see if the pattern of dysfunction has been seen before in the family history

136

What is eclectic therapy

Combines techniques from multiple theoretical perspectives

137

What is meta analysis

A statistical technique that allows researchers to combine findings from various studies and make comparisons between the effects of treatment and no treatment

138

What is medical model

Views psychopathology as a biological disorder

139

What do psychotropic medications do

Alter behavior by interacting with neurotransmitter sites in the brain

140

What is the difference between antagonist and agonist

Antagonist decrease receptor transmission while agonist increase them by blocking reuptake or blocking breakdown of neurotransmitters

141

What are antipsychotic medications

Most are dopamine receptors antagonist

142

What are the positive and negative symptoms of antipsychotic medication

Positive symptoms reflect too much DA
Negative symptoms reflect brain cell loss associated with enlarges ventricles and too little DA

143

What is tardive dyskinesia

Involuntary movements due to blocking DA receptors in the basal ganglia

144

How is tardive dyskinesia cause

A compensatory increase in the sensitivity of the DA receptors in the basal ganglia, happens in patients who have taken antipsychotics for many years

145

What are MAOIs

Keep the enzyme monoamine oxidase from breaking down 5-HT and NE

146

What are tricyclics

Block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine

147

What is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Block transporter proteins for the serotonin reuptake

148

What do alcohol and barbiturates do in anti anxiety medication

Bind to sedative hypnotic sites, increase flux of Cl- causing hyperpolarization

149

What do benzodiazepines do

Bind to anti anxiety sites which enhance binding of GABA to its receptors, useful for short term treatment of anxiety but can lead to psychological dependence

150

What are the primary issues of pharmacotherapy

Can cause side effects and there is a high relapse rate when drugs are no longer used

151

What happens when people continue to stay on the medication after the diagnosis has gone away

Lower relapse rates than people who get of the drug when the are no longer showing symptoms

152

What is electroconvulsive therapy

Used for treatment of severe depression

153

What does electroconvulsive therapy do

It increase the sensitivity of postsynaptic serotonin receptors, reduces the autoreceptors on the terminals of norepinephrine so the release of NE is increased

154

What are the side effects of electroconvulsive therapy

Short term memory life, it can interfere with newly acquired information into the LTM

155

What is deep brain stimulation

Electrodes are planted in the brain and a neurostimulator delivers electrical stimulation to targeted areas in the brain to treat neurological and psychiatric conditions

156

What is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

Noninvasive stimulation of the brain using a magnetic stimulator, used as treatment for movement disorders, chronic pain, and depression

157

What is a lobotomy

Most widely practiced western psychosurgery technique involving removal of cerebral tissue usually the frontal lobe