What is the distance requirement for microwave diathermy?
1 - 5 inches
Ankle sprain brace
Louisana Figure 8
Can ultrasound be used for prostatitis?
Yes, with orifice
What are the superficial modalities that only penetrate 1-2 mm?
Which type of bath uses no liquids?
What are the intensity and duration max using Faradic wave form?
Intensity = patient tolerance
Max time = 20 minutes
Exercise that shortens the muscle very quickly
A Kromayer-Water cooled device is associated with which modality?
Hot Quartz UV
Which modality is Russian Stim?
Which type of bath is used to treat chronic RA?
Transverse friction massage is contraindicated for what 2 conditions?
What is the duration requirement for short wave diathermy?
20 - 30 minutes
What are Bobath exercises indicated for?
Cerebal Palsy (or UMNL diseases)
What is the duration time for Galvanic modalities?
5 - 20 minutes per day
Which galvanic polarity pad would you place over an area of tissue in order to vasodilate?
Pos = hardens
Neg = softens & softens dilates
The effect of a contrast bath is what?
What is the distance requirement for short wave diathermy?
1 towel directly on skin
Acids are (pos/neg/neutral)?
Electronegative and attracted to the positive pole (anode)
Anode attracts anions, which are neg ions
Heat produced is directly proportional to the square of the current strength is called what?
deepest heating modality
Would you treat a patient with hypertension using traction?
No - HTN is contra indicated
The brain, heart, eyes, carotid sinuses, pacemakers, low back or abdomen during pregnancy, open wounds are all contraindications for which modalities?
Any Electrical modality
During joint inflammation, what type of exercise is administered? (passive/active)
Chilblain is a contraindication to which modality?
How long should one be in a whirlpool bath?
20 - 30 min at twice daily
What tool would you use to determine the extent of neuromuscular damage using an electrical device as the stimulus while a graph records the response?
Muscle contraction with length shortening is called what?
Best modality to increase circulation
Which type of muscle contraction changes length while constantly changing pressure or resistance is offered to the muscle at a constant speed?
What are the lumbar spine traction guidelines?
Patient supine with knees flexed
25% of body weight
increase 5 lbs
Max = patient tolerance or 150 lbs, whichever is less
Example of closed chain exercise
What is the intensity requirement for short wave diathermy?
Which type of bath would be used to treat prostatitis?
Crawling exercises to mobilize the spine
The most indicated modality for fracture?
Which modality is based on Gate Theory and Opiate Theory?
The type of heat transfer used in a hot tub
Late state diabetes mellitus, active TB, encapsulated swellings, decreased thermal sensations, and abdomen/low back during pregnancy are all contraindications for which modalities?
Any heating modality
Which modality is used for treatment of Herpes Zoster?
The intensity of radiation from any light source varies inverseley with the square of the distance from the source. This is called what?
The Inverse Square Law
What is the size and function of A-delta fibers
Pain, Temp, Touch
True / False
Raynaud’s is contra-indicated for IR
Raynaud’s is Indicated for IR
Which type of muscle contraction has no change in muscle length and no joint movement?
What are the traction recommendations for the C-spine
28 deg of flexion
5% of body weight
2 lbs increment increases
max weight = 40 lbs or patient tolerance, which ever is less.
To reduce pain and stimulate nerves, which mode setting is used with HVG?
Which modality has the effect of increased histamine release?
Petrissage massage consists of what type of hand strokes?
(baking your pet)
ACL/PCL knee brace
The type of heat transfer used with a hydrocollator pack?
What response would you expect for a Total (Full) Reaction of Degeneration if Galvanic Wave Form was used?
Athetoid (slow & withering)
Vermicular (slow like a worm)
Cathode attracts which type of ions?
Cathodes are neg and attract pos ions
What is the only type of Reaction of Degeneration in which a nerve will respond to a FARADIC wave?
All other RODs, there is no response to Faradic
Degree of erythema showing no reaction?
0 degree Erythema
(or suberythmal dose)
Example of open-chain exercise
Severe laxity of the Cervical spine would require what type of support?
What is the temp requirement of a paraffin bath?
125 - 130 deg F
Is diathermy deep or superficial penetration?
Deep, 2 inches
To Re-Educate and Strengthen muscles, what mode is chosen using HVG?
Raynaud’s is contra indicated for all forms of Cryotherapy
What recovery time prognosis can be given for an Absolute Reaction of Degeneration diagnosis?
Degree of erythema which is similar to common sun burn?
2nd degree Erythema
(or 1st degree burn)
Degree of erythema showing considerable reddening with itching, burning, and marked desquamation (peeling), blistering
(3rd degree erythema or 2nd degree burn)
Which modality has the highest intra-articular penetration?
Exercise to develop coordination
Exercises where the hand or foot are fixed in space are called what?
Closed kinetic chain exercises
Which type of muscle contraction is changing length and joint movement is against a constant weight?
What are the time requirements for ultra sound?
Chronic Injuries = 10 minutes
Acute injuries = 4 minutes
Low back or abdomen during pregnancy is a contraindication for which modalities?
Any heating or any electrical modality
Interruption of George’s Line would require what type of support
Firm Cervical Collar
ABBSSS (A B-square S-cube)
All uses bases, are pos, and attracted to neg pole
Bases are used to treat the above.
What is the size and function of A-beta fibers
Degree of erythema shows reddening without desquamation
Minimal (deg = 1)
What are the intensity requirements for ultrasound?
Acute = Pulsed = 0.5 - 1.5 W/cm2
Chronic = Continuous = 1.0 - 2.0 W/cm2
Under water = add 0.5 W/cm2 to each
What is the intensity requirement of long wave IR?
170 deg F
Which galvanic polarity pad would you place over an area of tissue in order to vasoconstrict?
Pos = hardens
Neg = softens
Hardens = constricts = Positive
Vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation is called the ____ Reaction
Exercises for peripheral vascular diseases
Anode attracts which type of ions?
Anode is positive and attracts neg ions
Scoliosis brace worn 23 hrs per day
Which modality has the effect of increased Vit D?
What is the max time requirement for UV lamp?
Start at mild erythema
Increase time by 15 sec
Max time = 3 minutes
Would you treat hyperlordosis with traction?
Exercises for the shoulder girdle
A brace indicated for SI hypermobility is called what?
SI girdle (Trochanteric belt)
Bases are (pos/neg/neutral)?
Cathode attracts cations (+ ions) and therefore bases are attracted to the cathode. The Cathode is a neg electrode.
Modality used to treat superficial infections
What is the cosine law say about UV treatments?
Optimum when UV source is at right angle to the area treated
MC used UV source
Cold UV (Hg & Ne)
What does modulation do in IFC?
Prevents muscle accomodation by changing frequency
What is the distance requirement for Ultra Sound?
Coupled to the skin
Which Waveform uses alternating current?
What is the intensity requirement for microwave diathermy?
varies by power used
between 1 inch at low power
to 5 inches at high power
Exercises for low back pain involving flexion
Vapocoolant spray is an example of which modality?
For every 10 deg C of temp increase there is a 2.5X increase in oxidation rate is the definition of which law of physics?
2 types of IR
What is the Cobb Angle required for a scoliosis patient to be considered for bracing?
20 - 40 deg
What is eliminated with pulsed ultrasound over continuous ultrasound?
What are the wavelengths of UV?
Short = 180 - 270 nm
Long = 270 - 390 nm
What is the duration requirement for microwave diathermy?
10 - 20 minutes
Distance between an IR lamp and patient is:
14 - 18 inches
Exercise for incontinence
Severe laxity of the Cervical spine would require what type of support?
3 best treatments for pain are
The type of heat transfer used with all forms of diathermy
What are the physiologic effects of Interferential?
What are the actions of the Rotator Cuff muscles
Supraspinatus = ABduction
Infraspinatus = External Rot
Teres Minor = External Rot
Subscapularis = Internal Rot
What is the diapulse device used for in diathermy?
Tx of adrenals or immuno system
The type of heat transfer used with an IR lamp
Neuralgia or radiculitis is an indication for which modality?
Which modality has an indicator of chronic ulcers?
What reovery time prognosis can be given for a Partial Reaction of Degeneration diagnosis?
Up to 2 weeks
Which modality used piezoelectric crystals?
What is the effect of fluidotherapy?
Temp range of a cold bath should be:
55 - 65 deg F
What is the intensity requirement of short wave IR?
150 - 1500 W
What is the time dosage of Interferential?
20 - 30 minutes
What are the contra indications of TENS?
H I M
What is the size and function of C-fibers?
What is a Hubbert Tank used for?
Beurger’s Disease is a contra indication for which modality?
Named exercise to increase muscle strength by increasing resistance
Pulsed Ultrasound is used for which type of injuries?
Which galvanic polarity pad would you place over an area of acute pain?
Which modality has minor burns as an indicator?
To prevent muscle accomodation with HVG, how must the machine settings be changed?
Use of Switch Rate mode
Contra indicated for all baths are what conditions?
Temp sensation loss
Type of heat transmission used with water bottles
Exercises for low back pain involving extension
Exercise with biofeedback to aid in relaxation
Which galvanic polarity pad would you place over an area of tissue hardness to soften it?
Neg polarity softens tissue
Best modality for an acute injury is what?
Kayoki exercises are used for which muscle group?
Exercises where the hand or foot are free to move are called what?
Open kinetic chain exercises
Hemorrhage, Infection with suppuration, and malignancy are all contraindications for which modalities?
Temp range of a hot bath should be:
98 - 105 deg F
Muscle contraction with elongation is called what?
What is the butterfly electrode used for?
Tx of sinusitis with short wave diathermy
Which galvanic polarity would you place over an area of chronic pain?
A UV light filtered thru a Nickel-oxide glass is associated with which modality?
Woods Lamp UV
What is the distance requirement for a UV lamp?
Start at 30-36 inches, which ever produces a mild erythema
Decr distance by 2 inches
Minimum distance = 18 inches
Tapotement massage consists of what type of hand strokes?
What safety apparatus is used for micro wave diathermy?
Goggles - avoid cataracts
A hydrocollator pack is what type of modality?
Long wave IR
Cervical brace for severe injury
Which electrical pad is larger when using a wave form for treatment?
Active pad is small and placed on Tx site
Dispersal pad is large and placed on a proximal limb far away from Tx site
Cervical brace for mild injury
Firm Cervical collar
What recovery time prognosis can be given for a FULL Reaction of Degeneration diagnosis?
Recover time up to 1 year.
Which modality has an indicator of rickets and osteomalacia?
Which wave form works better for a Partial Reaction of Degeneration?
There are 2 wave forms,
Faradic & Galvanic
Galvanic works better for all RODs except for absolute ROD when there is no response to either treatment
Carpal Tunnel Brace
What are the physiological effects of faradic?
Fibrous tissue stretching
Increase Lymph flow
If no cervial laxity is found, what type of cervical support is used?
Soft foam collar
What is the Sleeve Test?
Used to test patient tolerance to UV
Effeurage massage consists of what type of hand strokes?
Time requirement for orificial UV to treat sore throat?
10 - 15 sec
What is the sensory reaction to cryotherapy following the sensation of coldness?