Flashcards in Pulmonary Deck (12):
Beta 2 agonists
Albuterol- relaxes bronchial smooth mm (via Beta 2 receptors). Use during ACUTE asthma exacerbation.
Salmeterol, formoterol- long-acting agents for asthma PROPHYLAXIS. Adverse effects: tremor & arrhythmia
Theophylline- likely causes bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase, thereby decreasing cAMP hydrolysis. Usage is limited b/c of narrow therapeutic index (cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity); metabolized by P-450. Blocks action of adenosine.
Ipratropium- competitive block of muscarinic receptors, preventing bronchoconstriction. Also used for COPD, as is tiotropium, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist.
Beclomethasone, fluticasone- inhibit the synthesis of virtually all cytokines. Inactivate NF- kappa B, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF- alpha, among other inflamm agents. 1st-line therapy for chronic asthma.
Montelukast, zafirlukast- block leukotriene receptors. Esp good for aspirin-induced asthma.
Zileuton- 5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor. Blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes.
Monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. Binds mostly unbound serum IgE. Doesn't work on IgE already on mast cell surface. Used in allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids & long-acting Beta2- agonists.
Expectorant- thins respiratory secretions; does not suppress cough reflex.
Mucolytic- can loosen mucous plugs in CF pts. Also used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose.
Used to Tx pulmonary HTN. Competitively antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors, decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance.
Antitussive (antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors). Synthetic codeine analog. Has mild opioid effect when used in excess. Naloxone can be given for overdose. Mild abuse potential.
MoA: Sypathomimetic alpha-agonistic nonprescription nasal decongestants
Use: reduce hyperemia, edema, & nasal congestion; open obstructed eustachian tubes. Pseudoephedrine also used as a stimulant
Toxicity: HTN. Can also cause CNS stimulation/ anxiety (pseudoephedrine)