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Flashcards in Pulmonary A&P Deck (27):
1

where does the 2nd rib attach?

at the sternal angle

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2

the upper airways involves.

the nose/mouth --> pharynx --> larynx --> trachea

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3

where does gas exchange in the lower airways take place? 

the respiratory unit: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli (diffusion of gas takes place)

4

the right lung has (#) lobes

3

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5

the primary ms of inspiration is the..

diaphragm

6

what encompasses the outer surface of the lungs? 

the visceral pleura

7

what are the accessory ms of inhalation? 

scalenes, SCM, levator costorum & serratus

8

expiratory muscles are used when? and what are they? 

if a quicker, more full expiration is desired

-QL, portions of the intercostals, ms of the abdomen and triangularis sterni

9

what position puts teh diaphragm at an advantage for contraction (aka inspiration)? 

supine

10

if you are exhaling, what is the driving force to pull the lungs inward? 

elastic recoil of the lung parenchyma

11

the main driving force behind the outward pull of inspiration is the..

bony thorax

12

what is teh REEP

point of equilibrium where the forces of inpiration and expiration are balanced

13

IRV =

volume of gas that can be inhaled AFTER a normal resting tidal inhalation

14

residual volume is..

the volume of gas that remains the lungs AFTER the ERV 

15

FVC = 

vital capacity (forced) : IRV + TV + ERV; amt of air under volitional control

16

functional residual capacity is..

ERV + RV air that resides in lungs after a resting tidal exhalation

17

FEV1 is normally what %?

70% of the FVC is exhaled in the FEV1

18

FEV 25-75% is more specific to..

the smaller airways

19

the PaO2 measures..

partial pressure of 02 in arterial blood

normally 95-100

req supplemental O2 if PaO2 <55 mmHg

20

if PaCO2 increases, what happens to the pH of the blood? 

decreases (more acidic)

21

if the HCO3 increases in blood, the pH of the body..

increases (more basic)

22

the apical aspect of the lung has more air or blood in an upright position? 

more air VE > Q (VE/Q ratio is high)

dead space

23

what is the "shunt" in the lungs? where is it normally?

wherever the VE/Q ratio is low aka more blood perfusion vs air; gravity dependent (lung bases when sitting upright0

24

typical respiratory rate =

12-20 bpm

25

peripheral edema and jugular venous distension indicates possible..

heart failure

26

tidal volume in a healthy adult is.

500 mL

27