where does the 2nd rib attach?
at the sternal angle
the upper airways involves.
the nose/mouth --> pharynx --> larynx --> trachea
where does gas exchange in the lower airways take place?
the respiratory unit: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli (diffusion of gas takes place)
the right lung has (#) lobes
the primary ms of inspiration is the..
what encompasses the outer surface of the lungs?
the visceral pleura
what are the accessory ms of inhalation?
scalenes, SCM, levator costorum & serratus
expiratory muscles are used when? and what are they?
if a quicker, more full expiration is desired
-QL, portions of the intercostals, ms of the abdomen and triangularis sterni
what position puts teh diaphragm at an advantage for contraction (aka inspiration)?
if you are exhaling, what is the driving force to pull the lungs inward?
elastic recoil of the lung parenchyma
the main driving force behind the outward pull of inspiration is the..
what is teh REEP?
point of equilibrium where the forces of inpiration and expiration are balanced
volume of gas that can be inhaled AFTER a normal resting tidal inhalation
residual volume is..
the volume of gas that remains the lungs AFTER the ERV
vital capacity (forced) : IRV + TV + ERV; amt of air under volitional control
functional residual capacity is..
ERV + RV air that resides in lungs after a resting tidal exhalation
FEV1 is normally what %?
70% of the FVC is exhaled in the FEV1
FEV 25-75% is more specific to..
the smaller airways
the PaO2 measures..
partial pressure of 02 in arterial blood
req supplemental O2 if PaO2 <55 mmHg
if PaCO2 increases, what happens to the pH of the blood?
decreases (more acidic)
if the HCO3 increases in blood, the pH of the body..
increases (more basic)
the apical aspect of the lung has more air or blood in an upright position?
more air VE > Q (VE/Q ratio is high)
what is the "shunt" in the lungs? where is it normally?
wherever the VE/Q ratio is low aka more blood perfusion vs air; gravity dependent (lung bases when sitting upright0
typical respiratory rate =
peripheral edema and jugular venous distension indicates possible..
tidal volume in a healthy adult is.