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Flashcards in Pulmonary dysfunction Deck (33):
1

what is different about bacterial vs viral PNA?

bacterial has :
-chest pain
-tachypnea
-increased WBCs
-productive cough

2

how is aspiration PNA caused?

aspirated material causes an acute inflammatory reaction within the lungs

3

TB is spread via..

aerosolized droplets from an untreated infected host

4

how many weeks must the host be on anti TB drugs to be rendered noninfectious?

2 weeks

5

DURING THE INFECTION STAGE of TB, what must be the precautions?

pt isolated in a NEG PRESSURE ROOM
-anyone entering must wear a MASK
-IF the pt leaves the room, must wear a mask

6

PCP (pneumocystis pneumonis) is ..

pulmonary infection caused by a fungus in immunocompromised hosts (ie post transplant/HIV +)
-involves SOB, crackles, weakness, fever, CXR shows infiltrates

7

SARS blood counts will be..

decr WBCs/platelets/lymphocytes
-INCR LIVER FXN TESTS

8

what happens to the chest wall during COPD?

AP diameter increases

9

what is asthma?

increased REACTIVITY of the trachea and bronchi to various stim
-involves widespread narrowing of the airways due to inflammation, smooth ms constriction, and incr secretions

10

what is the PaCO2 level in an asthmatic?

HYPOcapnea - increased RR so not enough O2 or CO2

11

is CF obstructive or restrictive?
-what is involved?

could be EITHER or mixed
-thickening of secretions of ALL exocrine glands

12

what is bronchiectasis?

can be congenital or acquired
-abnormal dilation of the bronchi AND excessive sputum production

13

what is respiratory distress syndrome?

occurs in PREMIES
-collapse of alveoli 2/2 lack of surfectant
****MUST CAREFULLY WEIGH BENEFITS OF PT VS INCREASED BREATHING EFFORT CAUSED BY HANDLING PREMIE****

14

What is a common result of RDS?

bronchopulmonary dysplasia
-obstructive; 2/2 high pressures of MV or high fractions of FiO2 and/or infections
LUNGS show: pulmonary immaturity and dysfxn 2/2 HYPERINFLATION

15

there are 3 reasons for restrictive pulmonary disease:

alterations in :
1. bony thorax
2. neuroms apparatus
3. lung parenchyma & pleura

16

arthrogryposis may result in what type of respiratory disease ? and why?

RESTRICTIVE - 2/2 restricted motion of chest wall/motion of bony thorax

17

what aspects of PFTs are affected in restrictive disease 2/2 neuroms apparatus alterations?

reduced vital capacity & TLC

18

if a patient has bronchogenic carcinoma, where is the tumor? and what are the PT considerations for this?

tumor in the bronchial mucosa
- PNA that develops behind a COMPLETELY OBSTRUCTED BRONCHUS CANNOT BE TREATED W PT TECHNIQUES; HOLD tx until palliative tx shrinks tumor
-could also have increased risk of FX 2/2 thoracic bone metastasis w chest compressive maneuvers/coughing

19

pneumothorax means..

air in pleaural space

20

where does the trachea/mediastinal shift in a pneumothorax?

AWAY from the injured side

21

hemothorax means..

blood in pleural space

22

how can you determine hemo vs pneurmothorax via physical exam?

pneumothorax has tymphany with medial percussion

23

if someone suffers blunt trauma to the chest and experiences hemoptysis, you can suspect..

possible LUNG CONTUSION with or without rib fx

24

if pulmonary edema is cardiogenic, what will they present like?

peripheral edema will be present

25

If a pt has a PE, their Ve/Q ratio..

will be HIGH Ve >> Q b/c perfusion low

26

what is a pleural effusion?

excessive fluid b/t the visceral and parietal pleura (incr pleural permeability to protein )

27

3 indications for postural drainage =

1. incr pulmonary secretions
2. aspiration
3. atelectasis / collapse

28

how long can you keep someone in ONE postural drainage position?

20 minutes (max)

29

what is the trendelenburg position?

head of bed tipped down 15 - 18 deg

30

what is the precaution when doing percussion/postural drainage with a pregnant woman?

supine or trendelenburg compresses vena cava

31

how long should percussions last?

3-5 minutes PER position

32

how many shaking exhalations should be done?

5-10 (>10 risks hyperventilation)

33

why is suctioning of secretions done intermittently? and how long should suctioning typically last/

intermittently to NOT damage trachea
-suction 10-15 seconds