Pulmonary Blood Flow, Gas Exchange and Transport Flashcards Preview

Respiratory Physiology > Pulmonary Blood Flow, Gas Exchange and Transport > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Blood Flow, Gas Exchange and Transport Deck (108):
1

How is the bronchus supplied with blood?

Via bronchial arteries (nutritive)

2

What type of circulation supplies the bronchus?

Systemic Circulation

3

What tissues are supplied in the bronchus by the bronchial arteries?

- Smooth muscle - Nerves - Lung tissue

4

How are the lungs supplied with the vessels that exchange gas?

- Pulmonary arteries

5

Where do the pulmonary arteries originate from?

Right ventricle

6

What is the function of the pulmonary vein?

- Returning oxygenated blood to the heart

7

What is the systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery

25mmHg

8

What is the flow of the pulmonary artery?

High flow

9

How much blood goes through your lungs every minute?

5L

10

What is gas exchange said to travel down?

A partial pressure gradient?

11

What is the partial pressure of CO2 in venous circulation and the pulmonary artery?

46mmHg (6.2kPa)

12

What is the partial pressure of O2 in venous circulation and the pulmonary artery?

40mmHg (5.3kPa)

13

What does the partial pressure of gases in the venous blood give an indication into?

What is going on with gas exchange in the tissue

14

What is the partial pressure of CO2 in the arterial circulation and the pulmonary vein?

40mmHg (6.2kPa)

15

What is the partial pressure of O2 in the arterial circulation and the pulmonary vein?

100mmHg (13.3kPa)

16

What will the partial pressures of these gases in arterial circulation give an indication to?

What is going on with gas exchange in the lungs

17

What does PA stand for?

Alveolar pressure

18

What does Pa stand for?

Arterial blood pressure

19

What does Pṽ stand for?

Mixed venous blood pressure (pulmonary artery)

20

What 3 things is the rate of diffusion directly proportional to?

- Partial pressure across the membrane - Gas solubility - Surface area

21

What is rate of diffusion inversely proportional to?

Thickness of the membrane

22

What is the partial pressure GRADIENT of O2 in the alveoli to the vessels of deoxygenated blood?

60mmHg (100 in the alveoli, 40 in the blood)

23

How much O2 diffuses across the alveoli per minute?

250ml

24

What is the partial pressure GRADIENT of CO2 in the alveoli to the vessels of deoxygenated blood?

6mmHg (46 in the blood, 40 in the alveoli)

25

How much CO2 diffuses across the alveoli per minute?

200ml

26

Why is the rate of diffusion of CO2 not 10 times less than O2 if the partial pressure gradient is?

CO2 is more soluble in water

27

How does pulmonary oedema affect gas exchange?

- Fluid inbetween vessels and alveoli 

- Since O2 doesn't dissolve well in water it reduces the movement of O2

- Also increases distance between membranes so diffusion is reduced

 

28

How does emphysema reduce gas exchange?

Reduces surface area

29

How does fibrosis reduce gas exchange?

- Increases membrane thickness

- Reduces ventilation and compliance 

30

31

How is pulmonary fibrosis confirmed?

Is radioopaque so shows up on chest X ray

32

How does emphysema increase surface area?

- Imagine the lungs are like a net and have loads of small holes 

- If you tear the barrier between one of the holes you get 1 bigger hole

- This is what emphysema does to the lungs 

33

What is ventilation?

Air getting to the alveoli (L/min)

34

What is perfusion?

Locol blood flow (L/min)

35

What is the relationship between ventilation and perfusion?

They are equal

36

Where in the lung are ventilation and perfusion both higher?

Bottom of the lung

 

37

Why are ventilation and perfusion higher in the bottom of the lung?

Gravity 

38

Where in the lung are ventilation and perfusion the lowest?

Apex

39

Where does arterial pressure exceed alveolar pressure in the lungs?

Bottom of the lung

40

What is distribution of blood flow influenced by?

Hydrostatic pressure

41

What other reasons are there for pulmonary artery perfusion decreasing as you go up the lung?

Because the pressure is lower, it is MORE susceptible to gravity

42

Moving up the lung, at roughly what rib does alveolar pressure become equal to blood flow (ratio = 1)?

Rib 3

43

Above rib 3, which is higher out of alveolar pressure and Pa?

Alveolar

44

What is blood flow (Pa) directly proportional to?

Vascular Resistance 

45

What is mismatch 1?

- At the apex

- Ventilation > perfusion

46

What is mismatch 2?

- At the base of the lung

- Perfusion > ventilation

47

Why is apex Pa lower?

- Gravity

- Alveoli squash blood vessels

48

What is shunt?

Blood shifting from the right to left side of the heart through the pulmonary vessels withouth being oxygenated

49

What happens to most blood vessels in the body in response to hypoxic conditions?

They dilate 

50

What happens to vessels in the lungs when they detect hypoxic conditions?

They contract

51

Why do the vessels in the lungs contract in response to hypoxic conditions?

So that less blood travels to the alveoli that have low oxygen and therefore more blood travels to areas with higher O2 conc.

52

What does a higher pressure of CO2 in the lungs cause?

Bronchodilation to increase ventilation

53

What is an example of a condition in which perfusion will be higher that PA?

Lung cancer 

54

What is a condition which may cause higher ventilation?

PE

55

What is the name given to the aspect of higher ventilation that means a lot of the air won't be used in gas exchange? (alveoli that are ventilated but not perfused?)

Alveolar dead space 

56

What does an increase in alveolar PO2 do to pulmonary circulatory vessels?

Pulmonary Vasodilation

57

When alveoli are ventilated but not perfused, alveolar PCO2 is reduced; what effect will this have on the brochus?

Bronchoconstriction

58

What is physiological dead space?

ALVEOLAR Dead Space + ANATOMICAL Dead Space

59

How much O2 dissolves per litre of plasma?

3ml

60

To what value does haemoglobin increase blood O2 capacity to?

200ml/L

61

What does arterial partial pressure refer to?

ONLY O2 in solution

62

What is O2 concentration determined by?

- O2 solubility

- Partial Pressure of O2 in the gaseous phase

63

What are the values of partial pressure of a gas in solution equal to?

The partial pressure of the gas in the gaseous phase that is DRIVING the gas into solution

64

EXAMPLE OF PARTIAL PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL O2 PRESSURE

- O2 solubility in water is low (0.03ml/L/mmHg)

- We have 3ml/L of O2 in the plasma therefore the partial pressure driving O2 into the plasma must be 100mmHg

- VOLUME IN SOLUTION/SOLUBILITY = PARTIAL PRESSURE

- 3/0.03 = 100mmHg

65

What is the partial pressure that drives oxygen into solution sometimes known as?

Oxygen tension

66

What would happen if O2 travelled as gas in the blood?

Air Embolism - fatal 

67

What is the O2 demand for resting tissue?

250ml/min

68

Without haemoglobin, how much O2 would tissue get using just arterial oxygen?

- Arterial O2 = 3ml/L

- Cardiac output = 5L/min

= 15ml/min 

NOT ENOUGH TO MAINTAIN TISSUE

69

How much haemoglobin do we have on average in our blood?

150g/L

70

How much O2 is carried per gram of haemoglobin?

1.34ml

71

With haemoglobin, how much O2 is carried in the blood to tissues?

- 150g/L

- 5L

- 150 x 5 = 750

- 1.34 ml of O2 per gram

- Roughly 1000ml/min

72

What percentage of O2 in the blood is extracted by tissue?

25%

73

How many alpha and beta chains are in haemoglobin?

- 2 A

- 2 B

74

What is the name given to the fact that if an O2 binds to one of the polypeptide chains, it increases the affinity for O2 of the others?

Cooperative binding 

75

What are the 4 different types of haemoglobin?

- Adult haemoglobin (HbA)

- HbA2

- Fetal haemoglobin (HbF)

- Glycosylated haemoglobin

76

What percentage of total haemoglobin is HbA?

92%

77

How does HbA2 differ from HbA?

Delta chains replace beta chains 

78

How does HbF differ from HbA?

Gamma chains replace beta chains 

79

What are the three types of glycosylated haemoglobin?

- HbA1A

- HbA1B

- HbA1C

80

What is the major determinant of haemoglobin saturation with oxygen?

Partial pressure of Oin arterial blood

81

What condition is testing for glycosylated haemoglobin useful for?

Diabetes

82

How does haemoglobin help maintain the partial pressure gradient needed to draw O2 out of the alveoli?

- Essentially mops up the O2 in the plasma

- This means more O2 is drawn out to try to reach equilibrium until the haemoglobin is saturated

83

What saturation is haemoglobin at at normal systemic arterial PO2?

About 100%

84

What is the saturation of haemoglobin at venous pressure?

75%

85

What has a higher affinity for O2, HbA or HbF?

HbF

86

Why does HbF need a higher affinity?

Used to capture O2 from maternal blood

87

What has a higher affinity, HbF or myoglobin?

Myoglobin

88

Which type of muscle fibres have more myoglobin?

Oxidative

89

Definition of anaemia?

Condition where O2 carrying capacity of the blood is compromised 

90

What is the PaO2 during anaemia?

Normal

91

What effect does acidosis have on affinity for oxygen and therefore the haemoglobin saturation curve?

Lowers O2 affinity so more O2 moves out into the muscles, graph shifts right

92

What effect does alkalosis have on affinity for oxygen and therefore the haemoglobin saturation curve?

Increases affinity for O2, graph shifts left

93

What effect does increased body temperature have on affinity for oxygen and therefore the haemoglobin saturation curve?

Reduces affinity and shifts the curve to the right

94

What effect does low body temperature have on affinity for oxygen and therefore the haemoglobin saturation curve?

Increases affinity and shifts the curve left

95

How much more attracted to haemoglobin is carbon monoxide than oxygen?

250 times?

96

What effect does 2,3 - DPG have on affinity for oxygen and therefore the haemoglobin saturation curve?

- Is released during hypoxia

- Reduces affinity and shifts the curve right 

97

Once someone has breathed carbon monoxide in why is it hard to treat them?

Dissociates very slowly 

98

What is a typical sign of carbon monoxide poisoning?

Cherry red skin

99

What is the treatment for CO poisoning?

- 100% oxygen

- Sometimes ventilate CO2 to encourage increased ventilation

100

What are the 5 main types of hypoxia?

- Hypoxic hypoxia - reduced O2 gas exchange 

- Anaemic hypoxia - reduction in O2 carrying capability 

- Ischaemic hypoxia - heart disease with innefficient circulation

- Histotoxic hypoxia - poisoning that prevents cells using O2

- Metabolic hypoxia - O2 delivery doesn't reach tissue demand

101

What 3 places does CO2 reside when being transported in the blood

- Plasma (7%)

- Combines with deoxyhaemoglobin (23%)

- Reacts with water in erythrocytes to form carbonic acid (70%)

102

What does the carbonic acid dissociate into?

Bicarbonate and H+ ions 

103

What does the bicarbonate "swap" with to move out of the cell and what is this process called?

- Chlorine

- Chlorine shift

104

What do the dissociated H+ ions do?

Bind to deoxyhaemoglobin

105

Why is CO2 able to change ECF pH?

It dissociates into a base and H+ ions which both alter the pH

106

When would CO2 alter pH?

During hypo/hyperventilation 

107

What will hypoventilation cause?

CO2 retention - acidosis

108

What will hyperventilation cause?

CO2 will be lost more - alkalosis