Give an example of a unit of analysis
- a person
What is qualitative content analysis (CA) according to Hsieh & Shannon, 2005?
“Qualitative content analysis is defined as a research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns”
What are the general features of qualitative CA?
- Flexible (impressionistic, intuitive, interpretative, strictly textual)
- Description and interpretation of the message in focus
- Systematic procedures
- Reduces data while preserving the core meaning
- Different levels of interpretations
Name three main approaches of CA?
- Directed (Deductive)
Describe conventional content analysis
- describe a phenomenon, shortage of information
- Inductive, codes flow from the data
- Compares findings to existing theories and models
Define directed content analysis
• To validate or extend conceptually a theory
• Deductive category application
Summative content analysis
• Understanding the contextual use of words or concepts
• Discovering underlying meanings
What is a deductive approach to qualitative CA
To expand on a
theoretical framework or theory
What is a inductive approach to qualitative CA
To explore and develop new areas of knowledge
What does manifest content mean?
- Describes the visible and obvious components in the text, quantifiable
- Pre-chosen categories
What does latent content mean?
- Interpretation of the underlying meaning of the text, not the words used
codes lead to categories
What are the 7 steps of the analysis procedure in CA
1. Decide unit of analysis
2. Immerse oneself in data
3. Identify MEANING UNITS (MU)
4. CONDENSATION of MU
5. Assign CODES
6. Take analytical notes
7. Identification of emerging categories
Name a few "units" of analysis
What is "CONDENSATION of Meaning Units"?
A process of shortening/reducing the text while still preserving the core.
What does "codes" refer to in qualitative CA?
The label of a meaning unit, used to retrieve and organize the data
How does one create categories and themes
By reducing the number of codes, cluster them
together, and create categories and tentative themes.
What is a meaning unit (MU)?
Constellation of words or statements that share common characteristics or related meanings
What is purposive sampling?
Purposive sampling groups participants according to preselected criteria relevant to a particular research question
A cocktail of methodologies that share the assumption that personal engagement with the subject is the key to understanding a particular culture or social setting.
WHAT IS THE AIM OF GROUNDED THEORY
TO GENERATE OR DISCOVER A THEORY
EXPLAIN GROUNED THEORY
GROUNDED THEORY AIMS TO GENERATE A THEORY. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS ARE DONE SIMULTANEOUSLY. ANALYSED DATA GENERATES KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS FOR FURTHER QUESTIONS THAT CAN BE USED IN INTERVIEWS.
Methods to improve trustworthiness
1. Prolonged Engagement
3. Partcicpant validation
4. Peer Debriefing
5. Referential adequacy
6. Negative Case Analysis
what the study is actually about
to what other settings the findings or notions can be applied
the effects of the researcher on processes, interpretations, findings, and conclusions