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Flashcards in Qualitative methods Deck (25):
1

 

 

 

Give an example of a unit of analysis 

 

 

 

  • a person
  • clinic
  • interviews
  • observations
  • diaries,
  • documents, 

2

 

 

 

What is qualitative content analysis (CA) according to Hsieh & Shannon, 2005?

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Qualitative content analysis is defined as a research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns”

3

 

 

 

What are the general features of qualitative CA?

 

  • Flexible (impressionistic, intuitive, interpretative, strictly textual)
  • Description and interpretation of the message in focus
  • Systematic procedures
  • Reduces data while preserving the core meaning
  • Different levels of interpretations

4

 

 

 

Name three main approaches of CA? 

 

 

 

  • Conventional 
  • Directed (Deductive)
  • Summative 

5

 

 

 

Describe conventional content analysis

 

  • describe a phenomenon, shortage of information
  • Inductive, codes flow from the data
  • Compares findings to existing theories and models

6

 

 

 

 

Define directed content analysis

 

 

•  To validate or extend conceptually a theory


•  Deductive category application

7

 

 

 

Summative content analysis

 

 

 

•  Understanding the contextual use of words or concepts

•  Discovering underlying meanings

8

 

 

 

What is a deductive approach to qualitative CA

 

 

 

To expand on a
theoretical framework or theory

9

 

 

 

What is a inductive approach to qualitative CA

 

 

 

To explore and develop new areas of knowledge

10

 

 

 

What does manifest content mean?

 

 

  • Describes the visible and obvious components in the text, quantifiable
  • Pre-chosen categories

11

 

 

 

 

What does latent content mean? 

 

 

 

  • Interpretation of the underlying meaning of the text, not the words used

 

  • codes lead to categories

12

 

 

 

What are the 7 steps of the analysis procedure in CA

1. Decide unit of analysis

2. Immerse oneself in data

3. Identify MEANING UNITS (MU)

4. CONDENSATION of MU

5. Assign CODES

6. Take analytical notes

7. Identification of emerging categories
and themes

13

 

 

 

Name a few "units" of analysis 

 

 

 

A person

a clinic

interviews

observations

diaries

documents

14

 

 

 

What is "CONDENSATION of Meaning Units"? 

 

 

A process of shortening/reducing the text while still preserving the core.

15

 

 

 

 

What does "codes" refer to in qualitative CA?

 

 

 

The label of a meaning unit, used to retrieve and organize the data

16

 

 

 

How does one create  categories and themes

 

 

 

By reducing the number of codes, cluster them
together, and create categories and tentative themes.

17

 

 

 

What is a meaning unit (MU)?

 

 

 

 

 

Constellation of words or statements that share common characteristics or related meanings

18

 

 

 

 

What is purposive sampling? 

 

 

 

Purposive sampling groups participants according to preselected criteria relevant to a particular research question

19

 

 

 

 

EXPLAIN ETHNOGRAPHY

 

 

A cocktail of methodologies that share the assumption that personal engagement with the subject is the key to understanding a particular culture or social setting.

19

 

 

 

 

WHAT IS THE AIM OF  GROUNDED THEORY

 

 

 

 

TO GENERATE OR DISCOVER A THEORY

20

 

 

 

 

EXPLAIN GROUNED THEORY

 

GROUNDED THEORY AIMS TO GENERATE A THEORY. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS ARE DONE SIMULTANEOUSLY. ANALYSED DATA GENERATES KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS FOR FURTHER QUESTIONS THAT CAN BE USED IN INTERVIEWS. 

21

 

 

 

Methods to improve trustworthiness

 

 

1. Prolonged Engagement
2. Triangulation
3. Partcicpant validation
4. Peer Debriefing
5. Referential adequacy
6. Negative Case Analysis

23

 

 

 

internal validity 

 

 

 

what the study is actually about

24

 

 

 

 

external validity 

 

 

 

to what other settings the findings or notions can be applied

25

 

 

 

 

reflexivity

 

 

 

the effects of the researcher on processes, interpretations, findings, and conclusions