Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (21)
What are the components of living soil?
Water, oxygen, minerals, organic matter
What are the effects of physical properties of soil on plants?
Soil temp, water movement, root growth, nutrient availability, texture
What is soil texture?
Proportion of sand, silt, & clay
What is soil structure?
Aggregation of particles into secondary clusters
What is organic matter?
Dead organisms and plant matter
What is humus?
Dark material in final stages of decomposition
What do earthworms do?
Mix/aerate soil, decompose, increase nutrients, redistribute nutrients, casts
What do Arthropods do?
Primary de composers
What does bacteria do?
Make nutrients available, transform nitrogen
What do plants need?
17 essential elements
-95% carbon hydrogen, & oxygen
-5% nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, etc)
What does fungi do?
Varies from producing antibodies to plant hormones
What is mycorrhizae?
Live on roots & extend reach if root hairs to increase uptake
What are actinomycetes?
Thread-like bacteria that produce antibodies
What is Protozoa?
Free living microorganism in water; predatory
What is tilth?
Physical condition of the soil as it relates to tillage ease
What is aggregation?
Individual soil particles oriented & brought together
What is dispersion?
Individual soil particles free to blow away
Aggregation is degraded by what?
Bare soil, no organic matter, excessive tillage, ammonia, too much nitrogen or sodium
What are the primary factors affecting organic matter?
Oxygen, nitrogen, moisture, temperature, and organic materials
What is farmers capital?