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What are the components of living soil?

Water, oxygen, minerals, organic matter

1

What are the effects of physical properties of soil on plants?

Soil temp, water movement, root growth, nutrient availability, texture

2

What is soil texture?

Proportion of sand, silt, & clay

3

What is soil structure?

Aggregation of particles into secondary clusters

4

What is organic matter?

Dead organisms and plant matter

5

What is humus?

Dark material in final stages of decomposition

6

What do earthworms do?

Mix/aerate soil, decompose, increase nutrients, redistribute nutrients, casts

7

What do Arthropods do?

Primary de composers

8

What does bacteria do?

Make nutrients available, transform nitrogen

9

What do plants need?

17 essential elements
-95% carbon hydrogen, & oxygen
-5% nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, etc)

10

What does fungi do?

Varies from producing antibodies to plant hormones

11

What is mycorrhizae?

Live on roots & extend reach if root hairs to increase uptake

12

What are actinomycetes?

Thread-like bacteria that produce antibodies

13

What is Protozoa?

Free living microorganism in water; predatory

14

What is tilth?

Physical condition of the soil as it relates to tillage ease

15

What is aggregation?

Individual soil particles oriented & brought together

16

What is dispersion?

Individual soil particles free to blow away

17

Aggregation is degraded by what?

Bare soil, no organic matter, excessive tillage, ammonia, too much nitrogen or sodium

18

What are the primary factors affecting organic matter?

Oxygen, nitrogen, moisture, temperature, and organic materials

19

What is farmers capital?

Topsoil

20

What are sustainable soil management practices?

Livestock to cycle material & organic matter, cover soil, right amount of nitrogen, no moldboard plowing, acceptable soil fertility range