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1

the bone of the maxilla or mandible that surrounds and supports the teeth

Alveolar bone

2

the bony lining of the socket that holds the root(s) of the tooth and is a portion of the maxillary and mandibular process

Alveolus

3

Along or toward the front of the dental arch

Anterior

4

The main opening at the apex of a root for entry and exit of pulp tissue

Apical foramen

5

In dental anatomy, the arrangement of the teeth in the form of a curve

Arch

6

The area, 2.04 mm average, between the base of the gingival sulcus and the alveolar crest

Biological width

7

Toward the cheek; that surface of posterior teeth (premolars) in contact with or facing the cheek

Buccal

8

The junction of the cementum and the enamel (generally visibly indicated by the cervical line running along the cervix (neck) of the tooth)

Cementoenamel junction (CEJ)

9

The junction of the cementum and the dentin

Cementodentinal Junction (CDJ)

10

A hard tissue forming the outer covering of the root of a tooth and surrounding the dentin along the root portion of the tooth

Cementum

11

The portion of the tooth from the CEJ to the incisal/occlusal surface that is covered by enamel.

Crown

12

The entire area from the CEJ to the incisal/ occlusal surface is more strictly called..

Anatomical crown

13

In a healthy mouth, the anatomical crown is not fully visible, being surrounded along the cervical area by gingiva. The visible portion of the crown is

Clinical crown

14

That portion of the tooth underlying the enamel and cementum and surrounding the pulp cavity; compromises the bulk of tooth

Dentin

15

the junction of the dentin and the enamel

Dentinoenamel junction (DEJ)

16

Away from midline of arch

Distal

17

a hard, mineralized tissue forming the outer cover of the anatomical crown of a tooth and surrounding the dentin in the crown portion of a tooth

Enamel

18

relating to or involving the face; an inclusive term for the labial and buccal surfaces, both surfaces being in direct contact with areas of the face

Facial

19

that part of the periodontium that consists of mucosal tissue and surrounds a tooth at the cervix and extends to cover the maxillary and mandibular alveolar process

Gingiva

20

pertaining to the cutting or tearing surface of anterior teeth (incisors, canines);

Incisal

21

toward the lips; that surface of anterior teeth directly contacting or facing the lips

Labial

22

toward the tongue; that surface of anterior and posterior teeth immediately adjacent to or facing the tongue

Lingual

23

toward the midline of the arch. The surface of anterior and posterior teeth facing toward the midline

Mesial

24

an imaginary line dividing a body into left and right; an imaginary line dividing maxillary and mandibular arches into maxillary and mandibular left and right quadrants

midline

25

pertaining to the grinding, crushing, and chewing surfaces of posterior teeth

Occlusal

26

parallel ridges formed by cyclic deposition of enamel

Perikymata

27

a complex of collagenous fiber bundles that surround the root(s) of a tooth and connects the cementum with the alveolar bone

Periodontal ligaments

28

an inclusive term for the supporting and investing structures of a tooth. The main structures are gingiva, alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligaments

periodontium

29

along or toward the back or rear of the dental arch

posterior

30

an innervated CT possessing the formative, nutritive, sensory, and defensive functions essential to the nourishment and vitality of a tooth

pulp

31

the space or void housing the entire dental pulp

pulp cavity

32

that portion of the pulp cavity that is housed in the coronal section of a tooth

pulp chamber

33

that portion of the pulp cavity that extends from the pulp chamber to the apex of the root of a tooth

Pulp canal (root canal)

34

half of the maxillary or mandibular arch, when divided by the midline

Quadrant

35

that portion of a tooth covered by cementum and embedded in a bony socket called alveolus

Root

36

the end or furthest point of the root of a tooth

Root apex

37

the portion of the oral cavity bounded on one side by the teeth, gingiva, and alveolar ridge; and on the lateral sides by the lips and cheeks

Vestibule; referred to as buccal, labial, and/or facial vestibule

38

Primary deciduous

form 16 weeks in utero, complete at age 3, first appear at 6 months, last at 24 months

39

Permanent-succedaneous

mixed dentition (6-12 years of age), begins with appearance of first permanent molars, also happens at shedding of primary centrals and emerging of permanent incisors, succedaneous teeth replace exfoliated deciduous teeth

40

Palmer system

1-8 with bracket in permanent; A-E with bracket in primary

41

FDI system

11-18, 21-28, 31-38, 41-48 for permanent and starting with 51-55 for deciduous

42

Universal

Permanent 1-16 (right to left) and 17-32 (left to right); deciduous A-J( right to left) and K-T (left to right) ; 8,9, 24,25 are centrals

43

4 tooth tissues

3 hard, 1 soft
Enamel-hard tissue; Dentin-hard tissue; Cementum-hard tissue; Pulp-soft tissue

44

Ridges, cusps

Incisor has a single ridge or edge used as a cutting edge

Cusps found on canines, premolars and molars-also used for cutting and holding

45

Roots

Single roots found on incisors, canines and some (most) premolars

Two roots with a bifurcation found in some premolars (commonly the maxillary first) and molars

Three roots with a trifurcation found in maxillary molars
Roots are held in the jaw in what is called the alveolar process; and the bone of the socket is called the alveolus

46

Divisions into thirds

Apical, middle, cervical;

distal, middle, mesial;

incisal, middle, cervical;

lingual, middle, labial;

occlusal, middle, cervical;

buccal, middle, lingual

47

Line angles

named for the junction of two surfaces;
Anterior teeth-there are six
Mesiolabial
Distolabial
Mesiolingual
Distolingual
Labioincisal
Linguoincisal

Posterior teeth have 8
Mesiobuccal
Distobuccal
Mesiolingual
Distolingual
Mesio-occlusal
Disto-occlusal
Bucco-occlusal
Linguo-occlusal

48

Point angles

Formed by the junction of 3 surfaces
Anterior teeth
Mesiolabioinscisal
Distolabioincisal
Mesiolinguoincisal
Distolinguoincisal


Posterior teeth
Mesiobucco-occlusal
Distobucco-occlusal
Mesiolinguo-occlusal
Distobucco-occlusal

49

Maxillary Incisors

Major function is to cut and punch food; Teeth have incisal ridges or edges, no cusps; Ridge makes up entire incisal part ; Edge does not exist until wear has occurred; Edge is flattened linguoincisally, is found at the junction with the labial surface.

50

Maxillary Central Incisor general info

A. Widest of any of the anterior teeth.
B. Labial surface is less convex (more flat) than the max. lateral or canine.
C. Tooth has a rectangular or squared appearance.
D. Mesial incisal angle is fairly sharp, distal angle is rounded.
E. Will see some centrals that are fairly flat in middle or incisal thirds.
F. May see mamelons on the incisal ridge.

51

Lingual View of Maxillary Central Incisor

1.More irregular in appearance
2. Largest part is concave (shovel appearance)
3. Mesial and distal marginal ridges are present
4. Will have a scoop-like look
1. Reverse of the labial outline
2. Lingual has convexities and a definite concavity
3. Below the cervical line is a smooth convexity called a cingulum
4. Confluent with the cingulum are the me, di marginal ridges
5. Lingual fossa is just below the cingulum
6. Borders are incisal ridge, marginal ridges and the cingulum
7. May have developmental grooves from cingulum to the fossa
8. Crown and root taper lingually meaning the ling portions narrower

52

Labial view of Maxillary Central Incisor

1. Average length is 10-11mm from high pt. On cervix to incisal edge
2. Mesial-distal is 8-9 mm from contact to contact (broadest point of tooth)
3. Mesial outline only slight convexity, crest of curvature near mesioincisal angle
4. Distal outline more convex, crest of curvature higher toward cervical line
5. Incisal outline curves very slightly downward towards the center

53

Root of Maxillary Central Incisor

is cone shaped

a) apex is blunt
b) is usually 2-3mm longer than the crown (orthodontics may cause it to be shorter)
c) bisecting line through the root and crown tends to parallel the mes. outline

54

Mesial view of Maxillary Central Incisor

1. Wedge shaped with base of the triangle at the cervix
2. Bisecting line will go through the apex and incisal ridge
3. Rarely will see line lingual to incisal ridge
4. Crests of curvature are just below the cervical lines
5. Will see a concavity just below the cingulum
6. The curvature of the cervical line is greater on the mesial surface than the distal
a) This helps one distinguish mesial from distal

55

Distal view of Maxillary Central Incisor

8. Will see more of the labial surface from the distal due to a slight curvature of labial surface
9. This curvature helps adapt to the curvature of the dental arch
10. Curvature of the cervical line is less than on the mesial

56

Incisal view of Maxillary Central Incisor

1. Do not see the root from this view
2. Cervical portion of the labial surface is a broad convexity,
3. Incisal ridge is clear
4. Generally slopes to the lingual
5. Outline of the lingual portion tapers lingually toward the cingulum
6. Mesiolabial and distolabial line angles are prominent and are  wider than the ling.
7. Will see more bulk from this view
8. Labiolingual measurement are only 2/3 as great as the mesiodistal
9. Crown has a triangular outline

57

Pulp chamber of Maxillary Central Incisor

1. Labiolingual Section: narrow in in sisal-widest in cervical, tapering gradually to apex.
2. Mesiodistal Section:  wider than m-d, conforms to general shape of outer surface with
a) Pulp horns in younger teeth, tapering evenly to apex. (calcify with age)
3. Cervical area is where pulp cavity is widest

58

Measurements of Maxillary Central Incisor

Cervicoincisal crown (10.5mm),
root (13mm),
M-D diameter of crown (8.5mm),
M-D diameter at cervix (7mm),
L-L crown (7mm),
L-L crown at cervix (6mm), mesial curvature at cervical line (3.5mm),
distal curvature at cervical line (2.5mm)

59

Maxillary Lateral Incisor General Info

Tooth may vary more than any other with exception of the third molar

1. Peg shaped laterals sometimes seen
2. May be missing (third molar, then lateral)
3. May have a palato-radicular groove-see
4. May see a large pointed tubercle 

60

Labial view of Maxillary Lateral Incisor

1. More curvature with a rounded incisal ridge fig 6-13,6-19
2. Mesial outline resembles a central with more roundness at the angle
3. Mesial crest of contour is at junction of middle and incisal thirds
4. Distal outline is always more rounded
5. Crest of contour on the distal is at the center of the middle third
6. Labial surface is usually more convex than central-except with some flat ones
7. Usually about 2mm narrower than central
8. Root length is greater in proportion to crown than central - 1.5x length of crown
9. Root tapers to apex, curves to the distal and ends in a sharper apex

61

Lingual view of Maxillary Lateral Incisor

1. Mesial and distal marginal ridges are marked
2. Cingulum is prominent with deep developmental grooves
3. Linguoincisal ridge is well-developed
4. Lingual fossa is more concave
5. May have deep developmental groove at the side of the cingulum-mosly distal (common place for a cavity)

62

Mesial view of Maxillary Lateral Incisor

1. Resembles a small central-crown is shorter, root is longer
2. Due to the heavy development of the incisal ridge, it appears thicker than central

63

Distal view of Maxillary Lateral Incisor

1. Width of the crown appears thicker than the mesial
2. Cervical line curve is less than mesial
3. May have a developmental groove on crown surface going onto the root

64

Incisal view of Maxillary Lateral Incisor

1. May resemble the central or it may look like a canine
2. Labiolingual dimension may be greater than the mesiodistal dimension (dif. Than central)
Pulp Chamber anatomy-similar to central only smaller

65

Measurements of Maxillary Lateral Incisor

Cervicoincisal crown (9mm),
root (13mm),
M-D diameter of crown (6.5mm),
M-D diameter at cervix (5mm),
L-L crown (6mm),
L-L crown at cervix (5mm), mesial curvature at cervical line (3mm),
distal curvature at cervical line (2mm)