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Flashcards in quiz 2 Deck (15):
1

Which of the following are true of fixed-action patterns?

A.
They usually serve an adaptive role that helps the species survive.
C.
They are triggered by the specific stimuli of releasers, so multiple objects containing those stimuli can activate them.
D.
They typically run automatically once activated and will continue until completed.

2

In lecture, we saw examples of how songbirds may not learn their species-specific song if not exposed to it early in life. Similarly, human infants may lose the ability to distinguish speech sounds if not exposed to them early in development. Both of these are examples of __________________ during development.

critical periods

3

A clock in your room makes a quiet ticking sound every second. The clock also sounds a chime once every hour. You usually get used to the ticking sound, but notice it again after the chime. This change is known as:

dishabituation

4

examples of habituation?


C.
You go to a movie and notice the hum of the fan when entering the theatre. After being there for a while, you no longer notice the sound of the fan.
D.
You buy a shirt that has a tag on the collar that is a bit annoying. After wearing the shirt over the course of the day, you stop noticing the tag.
E.
You go to lecture and are very interested in the topic. You hang on every word the professor has to say. However, the professor speaks in a very monotone voice that eventually seems to fade out.

5

In an experiment, a rat is placed in a cage containing a red light and a white light. Every time the white light goes on, a loud sound is played 2 seconds later. When the loud sound is played, the rat displays the acoustic startle reflex. After a number of trials, the rat startles when the white light goes on.

In the above experiment, the acoustic startle reflex (in response to the sound) is the __________________.

Unconditioned response

6

[From earlier] In an experiment, a rat is placed in a cage containing a red light and a white light. Every time the white light goes on, a loud sound is played 2 seconds later. When the loud sound is played, the rat displays the acoustic startle reflex. After a number of trials, the rat startles when the white light goes on.

In the above experiment, the white light is the __________________.

Conditioned stimulus

7

Different events can alter the effectiveness of classical conditioning. In the diagram below, the dotted line marks a point where the conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus. The fall in conditioned responses after this point is known as ________________.

extinction

8

[From earlier] In an experiment, a rat is placed in a cage containing a red light and a white light. Every time the white light goes on, a loud sound is played 2 seconds later. When the loud sound is played, the rat displays the acoustic startle reflex. After a number of trials, the rat startles when the white light goes on.

Once the above was learned, the red light starts going on at the same time as the white light. Both are followed by the loud sound 2 seconds later. If this is done for a number of trials, what should happen if the red light is turned on by itself?


The rat should not startle to the red light.


-- this is known as blocking

9

According to the compensatory response model, the conditioned response should always match the unconditioned response.

False

-- sometimes the CR will elicit an opposite response. The example in class was the cuing effect of a syringe containing a drug. The drug has one effect (e.g. raise body temperature), but the sight of the cue might trigger the body to prepare with the opposite effect (e.g. lower body temperature).

10

You have set a goal to go running more often in 2015, but you find it hard to stay motivated. To help this, you start listening to your favorite musical artist only when running. In this case, the music serves as:



A positive reinforcer

-- pretty easy, but simple to apply in many situations...

11

You have set a goal to get (on average) more sleep each night this quarter. To help keep motivated, when you stay up too late you make yourself pay a fine out of the money you would normally use to go do something fun. In this case, the self-imposed fine when you stay up late serves as:

a negative punisher

12

You normally cram the night before when studying for exams. For your upcoming COGS 107B midterm, you decide to apply some lessons from COGS 101B. You space your studying over multiple sessions, test yourself, and get a good night's sleep before the exam. You take the exam and find that you get a higher grade than usual! In terms of operant conditioning, the higher grade is a __________________.

Secondary reinforcer

Grades can be pretty good secondary reinforcers, but note that they are delayed. To encourage studying, give yourself a positive reinforcer immediately after each study session.

13

You repeatedly hit the snooze bar on your alarm one morning and, as a result, you are a few minutes late to your first lecture. The instructor gives you a scathing look as you enter the lecture hall, making you regret sleeping in.

In this case, the 'scathing look' is classified as a ______________________.

positive punisher

Right. In this set-up, the look is meant to punish being late. (In realty, it probably punishes coming in at all.)

14

In lecture, we discussed how punishment may not always be effective in the real world. Which of the following was not one of the reasons given for this?

Punishment has been shown to be less effective in controlled laboratory settings, so it can't be effective in the real world.

Response Feedback:
Right -- it may work in the laboratory, but is difficult to implement effectively in the real world. It often leads to undesired outcomes.

15

Operant and classical conditioning often work together in complex (non-laboratory) learning environments. Which of the following will more typically be true of learning under operant conditioning?

It is more active: the animal acts on the environment.

The animal associates a response with an outcome.

It can be used to produce more complex behaviors.