Quiz 2 CHEMISTRY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 CHEMISTRY Deck (21):
1

Matter

- as it pertains to our study of the body, matter is anything that has mass and occupies space (has volume)
- exists as SOLID, LIQUID, or GAS

2

ATOM

- the smallest component of matter identified in chemical reactions
- 92 different naturally occurring atoms termed ELEMENTS

3

ELEMENTS

- the "stuff" that makes up our world
- 26 elements involved in maintaining human life, 13 are trace elements, the other 13 make up 99% of our corporeal matter

4

13 most abundant elements in the body

C
Ca
Cl
Fe
H
I
K
Mg
N
Na
O
P
S

5

MOLECULES/COMPOUNDS

two or more elements chemically bonded together

6

Covalent Bond (polar and non-polar)

- stable bond formed by sharing electrons
- unequal sharing termed POLAR covalent
- equal sharing termed NON-POLAR covalent

7

Ionic Bond

- relatively weak, unstable bond formed by one element donating electrons to the other
- this results in charged atoms called IONS that dissociate easily in solution into what is known as electrolytes

8

Electrolytes

the basis for electrical activity in our nervous and muscle tissue

9

Acids

compounds that donate a hydrogen ion (H+); a common acid is HCl

10

Bases

compounds that donate a hydroxyl ion (OH-); a common base is KOH

11

Acids and Bases

- when an acid and base are mixed they form a salt and water. Salts are electrolytes. Using this example, the reaction looks like:
HCl + KOH ---> KCl + H2O

(the KCl dissociates into the K+ and the Cl- ions

12

pH

- a measure of how acidic or alkaline (basic) something is; generally measured on a 0-14 scale
- normal body pH is 7.35-7.45

13

Macromolecules

- there are 4 classes of relatively large molecules that comprise about 95% of our body: Carbohydrate, Lipid, Protein, and Molecule

14

Carbohydrates

C,H,O
- exist as monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides, and polysaccharides
Functions: energy source/storage, structural stability, DNA/RNA

15

Lipids

C,H,O
- exist as triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
Functions: energy source/storage, membrane components, steroid hormones

16

Proteins

C,H,O,N
- exist in a myriad of forms, small and large, all composed of AMINO ACIDS e.g. enzymes, membrane receptors, and hormones
Functions: energy source, coding for structure or function

17

Nucleotides

C,H,O,N,P
- exist in nucleic acids (DNA,RNA) and ATP
Functions: energy currency, coding, signaling, aiding metabolism

18

Water

- is a polar covalent compound vital for maintaining homeostasis, acting as a universal solvent and transporter
- found within our cells as intracellular fluid
- as extracellular fluid it is part of our blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid (fluid surrounding our cells), as well as in our secretions and excretions
- regulating the chemistry of these fluids is essential to sustain life, where moderate imbalance results in disease and severe imbalance results in death

19

Energy

- the ability to do work or put matter into motion
- exists in 2 basic forms: either stored or changing
- in biochemistry, stored energy is the potential that exists as a result of the bond that holds molecules together and it is referred to as CHEMICAL ENERGY

20

Chemical Energy

- stored energy is the potential that exists as a result of the bond that holds molecules together
- it is utilized (changed) through chemical reactions that occur in our cells and tissues
- the utilization of chemical energy may result in the creation of a new molecule (chemical), or it may be converted into a different form of energy such as heat
*energy cannot be created or destroyed, it simply changes form

21

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) the chemical energy used by our cells