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Flashcards in Quiz #3 Deck (25)
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1

Glucose (value range)

Adults: 74-106 mg/dL or 4.1-5.9 mmol/L

Critical: < 50 M and < 40 F and >400

2

Why would glucose be ordered for a patient?

To determine fasting blood glucose and to rule out conditions such as DM. True glucose elevations indicate DM. We monitor glucose levels in DM and to determine amounts of insulin that need to be administered.

3

What is glucose testing?

It's testing the free sugar in the blood. A high glucose level means the sugar is unable to be metabolized via insulin. Note that depending on when we check the blood sugar determines whether an elevation is good/bad. Right after a meal you should anticipate a person having a higher blood glucose level.

4

S/S for high and low glucose

High:
- fasting BG >130 after no food for 8 hrs
- thirst
- frequent peeing
- HA
- fatigue
- blurred vision
- weight loss
- BG will usually be around 180 2 hours after meals

Low:
- heart palpitations
- fatigue
- pale skin
- shakiness
- anxiety
- tingling
- coma
- confusion
- seizures

5

HbA1C (value range)

Nondiabetic: 4-5.9%
Good diabetic control: <7%
Fair diabetic control: 7-8%
Poor diabetic control: >9%

6

Why would HbA1C be ordered for a patient?

This is used to monitor diabetes treatment and management.

7

What is HbA1C testing?

It is testing the amount of sugar bound to hemoglobin in the blood. It monitors the last few months of DM management; typically the last 120 days of DM management.

8

S/S for high and low HbA1C

High: shows poor diabetic management r/t high blood sugar levels
- thirst
- frequent peeing
- fruity breath
- blurred vision
- weight loss
- fatigue

Low: good management
- asymptomatic since BG is well managed???

9

Total Cholesterol (value range)

<200 mg/dL or <5.20 mmol/L

10

Why would total cholesterol be ordered for a patient?

We want to identify those patients at greatest risk for atherosclerotic heart disease. Low cholesterol could indicate liver disease since it's produced in the liver.

11

What is total cholesterol testing?

Testing the amount of cholesterol in the blood. High levels indicate risk or possible atherosclerotic heart disease.

12

S/S for high and low cholesterol.

High:
- asymptomatic until you have the issue like stroke, heart attack, aneurysm

Low:
-hoplessness
- nervousness
- confusion
- agitation
- changes in mood, sleep, eating patters

*note that cholesterol is involved in the production of steroids, sex hormones, bile acids, and cell membranes

13

PaO2 value range

80-100

critical: <40

14

Why would PaO2 be ordered for a patient?

We want to see how much oxygen is being dissolved in arterial blood to determine whether we have an oxygenation need.

15

What is PaO2 testing?

Measuring oxygen content of the arterial blood.

16

S/S for high and low PaO2

High:
-polycythemia

Low:
- pallor
- cyanosis
- tingling
- numbness

17

Why would PaCO2 be ordered for a patient?

We want to determine ventilation capacity. It's the RESPIRATORY component in acid base balance.

18

What is PaCO2 testing?

We are testing the amount of CO2 in the blood to see the respiratory component of acid base balances.

19

Why would HCO3 be ordered for a patient?

We want to determine METABOLIC (renal/hepatic) function of the body.

20

S/S for high and low PaCO2

High:
- flushed skin
- dyspnea
- mm. twitches
- HA
- confusion
- lethargy

Low:
- confusion
- mm. twitching
- n/v
- lightheadedness
- tetany
- numbness or tingling in the hands/feet

21

Why would SaO2 be ordered for a patient?

We are trying to see how much of our hgb on the RBC is saturated with oxygen. We know the tissues are being adaquetly perfused with good O2 saturation.

22

What is SaO2 testing?

Testing the amount of hgb on the RBC is saturated with O2.

Right shift = letting go of oxygen, greater oxygenation needs

Left shift = holding onto oxygen, less of an oxygenation need.

23

S/S for high and low HCO3

High:

Low:

24

S/S for high and low HCO3

High:
-confusion
- lightheadedness
- tetany
- numbness/tingling
- n/v
- mm. twitching

Low:
- flushed skin
- dyspnea
- confusion
- lethargy
- coma

25

S/S for high and low SaO2

High:
- polycythemia (itching)
- asymptomatic

Low:
- pallor
- cyanosis
- numbness/tingling
- dyspnea