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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (21):
1

How basic elements of an experiment help meet the 3 criteria for causality

-manipulation of the independent variables to measure the dependent variable
-allows comparison of different treatment conditions
-control of extraneous and confounding variables in order to make sure the effect is not due to third variable

2

internal validity

extent to which we can draw accurate conclusions about explanations or cause and effect

3

external validity:

extent to which findings are generalizable

4

threats to internal validity

-extraneous variables (order effects, experimenter bias, diffusion of treatment, attrition)
-confounding variables ( varies systematically with the IV and confuses results)
-nonequivalent groups due to assignment bias

5

threats to external validity

-participants: selection bias, volunteer bias, attrition, differences
-situations: demand characteristics, participant reactivity, artificial lab environment

6

relative validity and research desgins

-control over extraneous variables have higher internal but lower external validity
-studies that are more natural have higher external but lower internal

7

one way experimental design

-one iv is manipulated
-IV must have two levels (violent vs non)

8

importance of equivalence and control in drawing cause effect conclusions

-different Treatment conditions must be equivalent at the start of the experiment
-only thing that should differ between treatment conditions is the IV
-differences in the DV observed after following manipulation of the IV were caused by IV

9

Between subjects

-compares DV in different groups of participants that are equivalent from start
-equivalence is achieved through random assignment

10

within subject

-measures DV repeatedly with same group under different treatments
-equivalence by having same participants in each treatment conditon

11

Advantages of WS designs

-fewer participants
-eliminates variability due to individual differences, more power to detect treatment effects

12

Disadvantages of W-S designs

-order effects (practice, fatigue, carryover)
-how to control order effects: counterbalancing- vary order in which participants experience different conditions

13

Factorial experiments

contain two or more IVS that are completely crossed

14

label for factorial designs

-each number in the label indicates a different IV
-each number represents the number of levels for that IV
-the product of all the numbers in the label indicates the number of different treatment combinations

15

Main effects

-examine the marginal means for main effects

16

Interactions

individual cell means for an interaction

17

Interpreting graphing results

-non parallel lines indicate interactions

18

Types of factorial desings

-one way, two way, three way
-between, within, mixed
-true experiments, quasi experiments, or blend of both

19

Advantages of Factorial Designs

-more efficient than one way
-higher external validity than one way

20

Between subject quasi experimental

-compare pre existing groups
-do not use random assignment or manipulate the iV in a true experimet

21

within subject quasi experimental

-before after designs
-do not counterbalance or control for order effects in true experiment