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Flashcards in Quiz 4 review Deck (27):

What is negative peace?

The absence of war. A condition in which no active, organized, military violence is taking place.


Positive peace

a social condition in which exploitation is minimized or eliminated and in which there is neither overt violence nor the more subtle phenomenon of underlying structural violence. It denotes the continuing presence of an equitable and just social order, as well as ecological harmony.


structural violence

is built into the very structure of social, cultural and economic institutions. It is indirect and insidious. It usually has the effect of denying people important rights such as economic well-being: social, political, and sexual equality; a sense of personal fulfillment and self-worth; food, clean water, and medical care; environmental rights.


Agencies that work toward peace

Amnesty International
911 Families for Peaceful Tomorrows
Partners in Health
Food Not Bombs
NYS Peace Action
Veterans for Peace
Combatants for Peace
Muslims for Peace
Christian Peacemaking Teams
Christina Noble Children’s Foundation


dilemmas of diagnosis

1: danger of overdiagnosis, new diagnostic label tendency to overdiagnose
2: The power of diagnostic labels: once a person has been given a diagnosis, other people begin to see that person primarily in terms of that label and overlook other possible explanations of the person's behavior.
3. the confusion of serious mental disorders with normal problems.
4: the illusion of objectivity


mental illness across cultures

what is considered Mental illness in one culture may be normal in another.


objective tests

standardized objective questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves.


Zung depression scale

The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) consists of 20 items with a Likert type scale after each item. The scores for each item range from 1 to 4 and the SDS ranges from a raw score of 20 to a raw score of 80.


Beck Depression scale

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a 21-item, self-report rating inventory that measures characteristic attitudes and symptoms of depression



Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory;
organized into 10 categories or scales, covering such problems as depression, paranoia, schizophrenia and introversion. Four additional validity scales indicate whether a test taker is likely to be lying, defensive or evasive while answering the items.


projective tests

psychological tests used to infer a person's motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of the person's interpretations of ambiguous stimuli.



ink blot test, 10 cards, not reliable , not valid


generalized anxiety disorder

continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration and signs of motor tension. may be genetic predisposition, and can stem from experience.



An anxiety disorder in which a person who experienced a traumatic or life-threatening event has long-lasting symptoms such as recurrent, intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares, and increased physiological arousal. caused by any traumatic event or crisis


panic disorders

an anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurring panic attacks, periods of intense fear, and feelings of impending doom or death, accompanied by physiological symptoms such as rapid heart rate and dizziness. usually occur in the aftermath of stress, prolonged emotion, specific worries or frightening experiences



an exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity or object



a disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, ritualized behaviors (compulsions). abnormalities in an area of the prefrontal cortex create a kind of cognitive rigidity, inability to alter compulsive behavior after feedback.



a disorder marked by excessive sadness, loss of interest in usual activities, feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, thoughts of suicide, and physical symptoms (such as fatigue and loss of appetite)


where might depression originate from?

1. genetic predispositions or neurotransmitter imbalances
2. violence, childhood physical abuse and parental neglect.
3. losses of important relationships
4. cognitive habits


bipolar disorder

a disorder in which episodes of both depression and mania (excessive euphoria) occur.


Borderline personality disorder

a disorder charactersized by extreme negative emotionality and an inability to regulate emotions; it often results in intense but unstable relationships, impulsiveness, self-mutilating behavior, feelings of emptiness, and a fear of abandonment by others.
child is born with genetic vulnerability that produces abnormalities in the frontal lobes and parts of the brain involved in emotion along with a disposition toward negative emotionality as a personality trait. and is worsened by an "invalidating environment".


narcissistic personality disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) are grandiosity, a lack of empathy for other people, and a need for admiration. People with this condition are frequently described as arrogant, self-centered, manipulative, and demanding. They may also concentrate on grandiose fantasies (e.g. their own success, beauty, brilliance) and may be convinced that they deserve special treatment. These characteristics typically begin in early adulthood and must be consistently evident in multiple contexts, such as at work and in relationships.


antisocial personality disorder

describes people who have a lifelong pattern of irresponsible, antisocial behavior such as lawbreaking, violence, and other impulsive, reckless acts.



is an inability to fear punishment and to feel guilt or remorse for antisocial behavior.


drug abuse disease model

some people are genetically predisposed to addiction or develop addictions as a result of changes in the brain caused by heavy drug use.


learning model

most addictions stem from conditions that encourage drug use,
1. addiction patterns vary according to cultural practices
2. abuse of alcohol increases under policies of total abstinence because people do not learn to drink moderately.
3. many people stop taking drugs without withdrawal symptoms
4. drug abuse depends on the reasons for taking the drug.


dissociative identity disorder

formerly called multiple personality disorder involves two or more identities that appear to split off within one person.