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D&T 4: Exam 1 > Radiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiology Deck (32):
1

Von-Hippel Lindau Disease

Hemangioblastomas

Renal =>>RCC and cysts

Adrenal =>> Pheochromocytoma

Scrotal =>> epididymal cysts

2

Oncocytoma on CT

Spoke-wheel appearance; looks like an orange cut in half

Undistinguishable from RCC on CT

3

Transitional Carcinoma of the Ureter

Goblet sign

4

Most common adrenal lesion

Incidental adenoma

5

Pheochromocytoma

Episodes of HTN, palpitations, tachycardia

Tx: Surgical excision; pre-treatment w/ phenoxybenzamine to prevent hypertensive crisis during surgery

-Assoc. w/ Men 2, VHL, and NFT1

***Light-bulb appearance on MRI (very bright on T2)

6

Testicular Microlithiasis

Multiple echogenic foci in testicle; assoc. w/ cryptochordism

-Monitor these pts.

7

Benign and malignant testicular masses

Intratesticular =>> Malignant

Extratesticular =>> Benign

8

Clapper-bell deformity

Tunica vaginalis completely covers the testes, epididymis, and vas deferens

***Can lead to testicular torsion

9

Ovarian Cyst radiology

2.5 cm = cyst

-Requires immediate MRI or surgery if >7cm

10

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome radiology

Presence of cysts circling the cortex of the ovary

11

Tuberous Sclerosis

Triad: Seizures =>> hamartomas in the CNS; calcified subependymal astrocytomas
MR
Adenoma sebaceum

*Kidneys show angiomyolipomas and cysts

12

Psammoma bodies are typical of what ovarian tumor?

Serous cystadenocarcimoa

13

Prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis

Obturator nodes ➡️ paraaortic nodes ➡️ osteoblastic lesions

Similar to germ cell tumors

14

Acute orchitis

Gonorrhea- classically involves the epididymis

Mumps- mononuclear infiltration possibly leading to atrophy

Syphilis- testes first, then epididymis

TB- opposite of syphilis

15

Intra tubular Germ Cell Neoplasia

Can lead to invasive germ cell TUMORS

Involves an isochromosome 12p

Will also express OCT 3/4 and NANOG

(these characteristics are shared in most invasive testicular germ cell tumors)

16

Spermatocytic Seminoma

PLAP (-) Seminoma that never originates outside the testes; cells display more marked Pleomorphism than normal Seminoma

Good prognosis too

Also occurs in older men (>65) which is unusual for most germ cell tumors

17

HSV appearance on Pap smear

Ground glass nuclei

Antibodies are negative during primary infxn

18

Acute endometritis

Seen in pts. Following miscarriage or delivery due to retained products of conception

Will see microabscesses on histology along with destruction of the endometrium

W/ CHRONIC, you will see plasma cells in the endometrium

19

Multiphase if CT of Kidneys

Non contrast CT

Then

Phase Contrast CT

Then

Phase CT of abdomen and pelvis

20

Fat dense lesion on the kidney

AML

21

Pseudomyxomatous peritonei

Ovarian tumor that stems from the appendix that can cause fatal intestinal obstruction

-also causes mucinous acites, adhesions

22

Luminal A gene expression (DCIS)

E2 pos

Her-2 neg

Most Breast cancers are this

Respond to hormonal therapy

23

Luminal B gene expression (DCIS)

Triple POS

Likely has metastasized; should Tx w/ chemo

24

Basal-like gene expression (DCIS)

Triple Neg

Markers are typical of Myoepithelial cells; aggressive w/ brain metastases

⭐️BRCA MUTATIONS

RESPONDS WELL TO CHEMO

25

Herceptin

Trastuzumab; works on HER-2 Neu cancers

26

Other signs of growth hormone adenoma

INCREASED RISK OF GI CANCER

CHF

Diabetes

HTN

Osteoporosis

27

Pituitary apoplexy

Sudden enlargement of the pituitary due to acute hemorrhage, infarction

Clinical: headache, diplopia, CV collapse

28

Rathke's Cleft Cyst

Causes compression of posterior pituitary stalk

➡️ Diabetes Insipidus

Will see ciliated columnar epithelium due to metaplasia

29

Crooke's hyaline

Intermediate, Eosinophilic keratin filaments formed in the pituitary after prolonged cortisol stimulation

30

Causes of chronic adrenal insufficiency

Autoimmune Polyendocrine syndrome type I
-candidiasis, abnormalities of skin and teeth

Infections (TB, fungi)

Metastatic disease (⭐️⭐️ lungs, Breast)

31

HVA

Specific urinary marker for Neuroblastoma

In

32

Myxedema

Apathy and general sluggishness in an adult due to hypothyroidism; pts. Also present with obesity, cold-intolerance, constipation