Radiotherapy Flashcards Preview

Applied Pharmacology bs > Radiotherapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiotherapy Deck (15):
1

What is radiotherapy?

is the treatment of disease by ionising radiation.

2

When is radiotherapy used?

- to treat malignancies
- shrink tumour
- reduce cancer returning after surgery
- control symptoms or to reduce pain if cancer is no longer treatable
- reduce the growth of cells in graves disease
- palliative radiotherapy

3

What are the side effects of radiotherapy?

- tiredness (anaemia from destruction of erythrocytes)
- nausea and sickness ( especially on GI tract and brain)
- sore skin
- temporary hair loss in area
- muscle and joint pain (because of swelling of joints)
- infertility ( if on prostate or ovarian )

4

Why is radiotherapy used in graves disease?

- reduce activity of thyroid glands by destroying cells
- less T3/T4 release

5

What can ionising radiation do?

- can penetrate tissues
- alter the nuclear material ie. disrupting cell growth and reproduction
- damages cells causing apoptosis
- forms free radicals which can cause further damage to the inside of the cells

6

Which radiation are more likely to cause tissue or cell damage because are more effective at producing ionisation?

ALPHA and GAMMA
- they are therefore the preferred treatment in comparison to BETA radiation or NEUTRONS for treating malignancies

7

Which cancers is radiotherapy specifically used on ?

- brain
- skin
- prostate
- breast
- uterus

8

What are the two types of radiotherapy?

EXTERNAL - supplied from outside the body
INTERNAL - utilizing radioactive implant placed inside the body

9

What is hypofractionated radiotherapy and its benefits?

- increase dose of radiotherapy per fraction lower frequency of fractions. -reduction in side effects
- reduction in risk of it coming back

10

What is hyperfractionated radiotherapy and its benefits?

increase frequency of fractions (more than once a day)
- treatment only takes 12 days rather than 4-6 weeks

11

Stereotactic radiotherapy delivers treatments from many different points in the head. What does stereotactic radiotherapy treat?

- small round tumours usually found in the head
- benign conditions such as:
- pituitary adenomas
- acoustic neuromas
- growths at the base of the skull (meningiomas)

12

Radiosurgery is a type of stereotactic radiotherapy. What does it entail?

- patients receive one single dose of radiation
- may be used if patients cant undergo surgery

13

What are the side effects of radiosurgery?

- not suitable fore medium or large tumours
- damage to nerves
-

14

Proton and ion beam radiation is a new radiotherapy. What does it do ?

- uses proton beams instead of ionising radiation
- these release a burst of energy then slow down

15

What are the potential benefits of proton and ion beam radiation?

- less damage to surrounding tissue as don't penetrate healthy tissues
- large dose reduces side effects