Radiotherapy Imaging Flashcards Preview

Medical Physics 2: Radiology > Radiotherapy Imaging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiotherapy Imaging Deck (14)
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1

Types of Imaging which use the standard linac equipment

MV:
Portal
Fluoro
MV cone-beam CT

KV:

CT on rails
kV Pair
Fluoro
kV Cone-beam CT

2

Less common imaging

Tomotherapy (MV fan beam ct)
Exactrac
Vision RT / Catalyst
Ultrasound
Fiducials
MR linac

3

MV portal acquisition

Uses MV treatment beam and electronic portal imaging detector

Can acquire single or pair of 2D planar images as well as fluoro

Cu layer: MV beam -> 2nd electrons
Scintillator: electron -> visible light
A-Si photodiode: vis light -> charge
TFT in pixels store charge till read out

4

Benefits and Lims of MV portal

AD:

Simples geometry
Continuous imaging
Good for QA

DIS

Poor contrast
Need surogate position markers
Scatter issues - can't use a grid

5

Summarise MV cone beam CT

3D data collected by rotating gantry whilst capturing 2D images
Can compare to planning CT

Noisy due to MV and Fan geometry

6

Describe tomotherapy imaging

Helical treatment device - can create helical CT, from multiple 1D projection images whilst couch moves through the bore

Advantages:
3D imaging
Low MV beam therefore better contrast than MV CBCT
Fan beam therefore less scatter-induced noise than MV CBCT
Higher energy than kV therefore reduced artefacts from prostheses (e.g. hips)

Disadvantages:
Detector not designed for MV
Higher dose than kV imaging
Slow acquisition time (minutes cf. seconds for diagnostic CT)

7

Advantages and Disadvantage of linac kV imaging

Advantages:

kV images therefore ‘good’ soft tissue contrast (i.e. especially in CBCT)
kV/MV pair could offer time savings?
Bow tie filter can be used to reduce cbct periphery dose

Disadvantages:

CBCT take 1 min to acquire
2 ‘isocentres’: imaging and treatment!
Limited to a range of couch angles (depending on approach- CBCT has to be done near zero degrees, kV pair allows much bigger couch angles but still not the whole range clinically used)

QA issues: geometry could effect image quality and treatment accuracy

8

Describe CT on rails

A standard CT unit positioned opposite a linac
1D helical proj CT

Advantages
Diagnostic quality imaging
Direct comparison with planning CT
Soft tissue matching possible
CT scanner geometry stable

Disadvantages
Couch spins 180° - QC must demonstrate stability of couch!
Time?

9

Describe exactrac

kV tubes recessed into floor either side of gantry and
Flat panels suspended from ceiling opposite. The system acquires an orthogonal pair of DRR reference images
Can use IR positional tracking

Advantages:
Fixed geometry independent of linac
3D shifts and rotations calculated (6DoF)
Quick to acquire (in principle)
Can monitor patient position during treatment (x-ray and/or infrared in some circumstances)
Imaging at different couch angles possible

Disadvantages:
External system
Independent imaging system can give different results to on-board imaging-
Post-oblique view of anatomy
Can produce little information depending on tumour location
Little manual adjustment possible

10

Describe Vision RT/C-rad

Projector / stereoscopic camera units suspended from ceiling

Creates a surface map of the patient by using its fixed geometry and imaging a speckle pattern projected on to the patient.

Advantages:
Non-ionising
Intrafraction-motion monitoring
4D / gating possible

Disadvantages:
Viewing problems with couch angles and/or undulating surfaces
Only applicable to some sites
Surface used as surrogate for internal anatomy

11

Describe the use of ultrasound in rad-therapy imaging

Images the patient and tracks object position by imaging a transducer mounted on an arm, tracked using IR markers. Can fuse results with CT

Advantages:
Non-ionising
Good soft tissue contrast

Disadvantages:
Limited FOV
Limited to specific sites

12

Describe the use of fiducials

Implanted makers used with kV or MV planar imaging

Compare to ref ct im with the markers

Advantages:
Soft tissue target now visible
Fast image acquisition & marker match
Intrafraction motion monitoring possible (with some systems)

Disadvantages
Invasive procedure
Markers can migrate
Limited to specific sites (e.g. prostate)
Don’t get 3D data

13

What is the calypso system?

A fiducials marker system that as uses RF transponders
The transponders emit RF signals when excited and can be tracked via IR cameras. Can ref transponder co-ords to a CT image

Advantages:
Non-ionising
Soft tissue target position
Intrafraction motion monitoring

Disadvantages
Invasive procedure
Limited to specific sites (e.g. prostate)
Array in treatment beam
Complicated QA?

14

Describe the use of MRI in radiotherapy imaging

Co and Linac systems are available

Treat around the magnet array - use MRI for ref images

Advantages:
Gold standard soft tissue imaging!
Potential for motion tracking
Functional imaging
Adaptive planning

Disadvantages:
Obvious Cobalt issues for ViewRay
Linac still under development…
Expensive
MR planning- electron density