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Flashcards in random intro Deck (22):
1

What is an allergy?

an exaggerated response by the immune system to an allergen.

2

What is an allergen?

a normally harmless substance that causes an allergic reaction.

3

what are the two types of allergic rxns?

immediate (0s-30min) and delayed

4

What happens during an allergic rxn?

antibodies cause histamines to be released from certain cells

5

What does histamine cause?

Swelling of tissues. Release of fluids (runny noses and eyes). muscle spasms (some cases)

6

What is an antigen?

Any molecule that binds to immunoglobulin or T cell receptor

7

What is a pathogen?

Microorganism that can cause disease

8

What is an antibody?

secreted immunoglobulin

9

What is an immunoglobulin?

Antigen binding molecules of B cells

10

What is a vaccination?

Deliberate induction of protective immunity to a pathogen

11

What are the three broad categories of immune disorders?

Immunodeficiencies. Autoimmunity. Hypersensitivities

12

What are immunodeficiencies?

occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive.

13

How do diets lacking protein cause immunodeficiency?

Impaired Cell-mediated immunity, Complement activity, Phagocyte function, IgA antibody concentrations, Cytokine production

14

What happens as a result of the loss of thymus at an early age?

severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to infection.

15

What is chronic granulomatous disease?

congenital immunodeficiency where phagocytes have a reduced ability to destroy pathogens,

16

What is autoimmunity?

the immune system fails to properly distinguish between self and non-self, and attacks part of the body

17

What is a hypersensitivity?

immune response that damages the body's own tissues.

18

Describe a type I hypersensitivity

immediate or anaphylactic reaction, often associated with allergy. mediated by IgE

19

Describe a type II hypersensitivity

antibodies bind to antigens on the patient's own cells, marking them for destruction. mediated by IgG and IgM. ex-myasthenia gravis

20

Describe a type III hypersensitivity

triggered by aggregations of antigens, complement proteins, and IgG and IgM antibodies and deposited in various tissues.

21

What are two examples of a type III hypersensitivity?

lupus, Churg Strauss

22

What is a type IV hypersensitivity?

usually takes between two and three days to develop. Unlike the other types, it is not antibody mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. Example: TB test