Flashcards in random intro Deck (22):
What is an allergy?
an exaggerated response by the immune system to an allergen.
What is an allergen?
a normally harmless substance that causes an allergic reaction.
what are the two types of allergic rxns?
immediate (0s-30min) and delayed
What happens during an allergic rxn?
antibodies cause histamines to be released from certain cells
What does histamine cause?
Swelling of tissues. Release of fluids (runny noses and eyes). muscle spasms (some cases)
What is an antigen?
Any molecule that binds to immunoglobulin or T cell receptor
What is a pathogen?
Microorganism that can cause disease
What is an antibody?
What is an immunoglobulin?
Antigen binding molecules of B cells
What is a vaccination?
Deliberate induction of protective immunity to a pathogen
What are the three broad categories of immune disorders?
Immunodeficiencies. Autoimmunity. Hypersensitivities
What are immunodeficiencies?
occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive.
How do diets lacking protein cause immunodeficiency?
Impaired Cell-mediated immunity, Complement activity, Phagocyte function, IgA antibody concentrations, Cytokine production
What happens as a result of the loss of thymus at an early age?
severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to infection.
What is chronic granulomatous disease?
congenital immunodeficiency where phagocytes have a reduced ability to destroy pathogens,
What is autoimmunity?
the immune system fails to properly distinguish between self and non-self, and attacks part of the body
What is a hypersensitivity?
immune response that damages the body's own tissues.
Describe a type I hypersensitivity
immediate or anaphylactic reaction, often associated with allergy. mediated by IgE
Describe a type II hypersensitivity
antibodies bind to antigens on the patient's own cells, marking them for destruction. mediated by IgG and IgM. ex-myasthenia gravis
Describe a type III hypersensitivity
triggered by aggregations of antigens, complement proteins, and IgG and IgM antibodies and deposited in various tissues.
What are two examples of a type III hypersensitivity?
lupus, Churg Strauss