RBCs, WBCs and Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RBCs, WBCs and Immunity Deck (71):
1

♣ Vehicle of transport for gases, nutrients, Hormones and metabolic wastes
♣ Regulation of pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids
♣ Defense against toxins and pathogens
♣ Stabilization of body temperature

General Functions of Blood

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♣ Fluid medium of the blood/non cellular part of the blood
♣ It is where the cells are suspended

Plasma

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♣ Plasma minus clotting proteins

Serum

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♣ Collectively, plasma proteins exert a colloidal osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure) within the circulatory system
♣ are nearly derived from the liver (primary source of plasma proteins) with the exception of immunoglobulins (which are derived from plasma cells)

Plasma Proteins

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Formed Elements are made in the Bone Marrow via the process called

Haemopoiesis

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♣ 1st site of blood cell production during 3rd week of fetal embryologic development

Yolk Sac / Aorta Gonad Mesonephros (AGM) Region

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♣ Chief site of blood cell formation until shortly after birth
♣ begins during the 3rd month of embryogenesis
♣ with minor contribution from spleen and lymph nodes

Liver

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♣ only source of hematopoiesis postnatally
♣ begins during the 4th month of development

Bone Marrow

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♣ marrow throughout the skeleton remains red and hematopoietically active

Birth to Puberty

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♣ only vertebrae, ribs, sternum, skull, pelvis & proximal epiphyseal regions of the humerus retain red marrow remaining marrow becomes yellow, fatty & inactive

Age 20 and Above

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Chief Site of Blood Formation PRE-NATALLY

Liver

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Chief Site of Blood Formation POST-NATALL

Bone Marrow

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♣ most abundant of blood cells
♣ it gives the whole blood its characteristic
♣ functions
1. it transports hemoglobin (carries oxygen) from lungs to tissues for use
2. it transports CO2 (in the form of bicarbonate ion or HCO3-) from tissues to lungs for expulsion

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocyte)

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an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between co2 and h20 to form carbonic acid or h2co

Carbonic Anhydrase

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Protein responsible for giving RBC its biconcave shape

Spectrin

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is the protein inside the RBC that binds with oxygen

Hemoglobin

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is the % of whole blood occupied by cellular elements

Hematocrit

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is composed of a 4 polypeptide subunits (2 alpha units and 2 beta units)

Adult Hemoglobin (HbA)

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(2 Alpha & 2 Gamma chains) ist most common form of hemoglobin during fetal life

Fetal Hemoglobin (HbF)

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an enzyme that causes Shift to the Right of the O2-HgB dissociation curve or increased unloading of O2 compared to HbA

2,3 BPG

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♣ iron is an essential metallic component of heme
♣ total iron in the body is 4-5 g
65% hemoglobin (majority)
4% myoglobin
1% in various heme compounds that promote intracellular oxidation

Iron Metabolism

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Hormone responsible for RBC production and maturation

EPO (Erythropoietin)

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Stimulus for EPO production

Hypoxia

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Transport of Iron in the blood

Transferrin

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#1 storage protein in excess iron in liver

Ferritin

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Secondary/supplementary storage for iron

Hemosiderin

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one that gives urine its yellow color

Urobilin

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one that gives stool its yellow color

Stercobilin

29

Role of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in RBC Formation

♣ Both are essential for the synthesis of DNA
- formation of thymidine triphosphate, building block of DNA
♣ Vitamin B12 or Folic Acid deficiency causes:
- Abnormal or diminished DNA
- Failure of nuclear maturation and cell division in a developing RBC

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macrocytes with flimsy membranes that are oval in shape and irregular

Megaloblastic Macrocytic Anemia

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Vitamin B12 Deficiency will also cause

Neural Deficits

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Folic Acid Deficiency will also cause

Neural Tube Disorder

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is the capability of the body to resist almost all types of organisms or toxins that tend to damage tissues and organs

Immunity

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Types of Immunity

1. Innate Immunity
2. Acquired Immunity

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natural immunity; not specific; unlearned; first line

Innate Immunity

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second line; specific; learned

Acquired Immunity

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♣ Most common type
♣ Acute inflammatory response to tissue injury (degrade tissue components, destroy damaged tissue and kills bacteria)
♣ Prominent feature: Highly lobulated nucleus

Neutrophils

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♣ Weak phagocytes
♣ Parasitic infections
♣ Allergic reactions - Eosinophilic chemotactic factor: released by mast cells and basophils causes eosinophils to migrate to inflammed allergic tissue
♣ Prominent feature: bilobed nucleus, stain bright red with eosin dye

Eosinophils

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♣ Least common type
♣ Share functional similarities with Mast Cells
♣ Produces histamine, heparin, bradykinin, serotonin
♣ Allergic reactions: IgE
♣ Prominent feature: bilobed/trilobed nucleus, largely densely basophilic (blue) granules

Basophils

40

♣ Largest of WBC
♣ Tissue: macrophages
♣ Resident phagocytes
♣ Prominent feature: eccentrically placed nucleus

Monocytes

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♣ Small, non-nucleated cells from megakaryocytes
♣ Not part of WBC, not involved in immunity
♣ Involved in Hemostasis
♣ Life span: 7-10 days

Platelets

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♣ 2nd most common type
♣ Cells of adaptive immunity
♣ T cell (thymus) or B cell (bone marrow)
♣ Smallest of WBC
♣ Prominent feature: round, densely stained nucleus with a pale basophilic, non-granular cytoplasm

Lymphocytes

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What is the largest WBC?

Monocyte

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What is the most numerous, least numerous WBC?

♣ Most numerous: Neutrophils
♣ Least numerous: Basophils

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What are the cells involved in adaptive immunity and parasitic infections?

♣ Adaptive Immunity: Lymphocytes
♣ Parasitic Infections: Eosinophils

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Can phagocytize up to 100 bacteria; can engulf larger particles (e.g. RBCs, Plasmodium); can extrude these particles and survive after for months

Macrophages

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Can phagocytize 3-20 bacteria before dying

Neutrophils

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Movement of neutrophils and macrophages towards a CHEMICAL SIGNAL (bacterial toxins, products of inflammation, complement cascade, products from clotting)

Chemotaxis

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Movement out of the circulatory system and into the site of injury

Diapedesis

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Mechanisms of INNATE IMMUNITY

Mast Cells: will release histamine causing vasodilation and increased vascular permeability

Tissue Macrophages
- 1st line of defense

Neutrophils
- 2nd line of defense
- Will start migrating in response to inflammatory cytokines
- Cause Phagocytosis

Monocytes
3rd line of defense
- This response takes time (at least 8 hours)

Inc Monocytes & Granulocyte production by BM
- 4th line of defense
- Takes 3-4 days
- Mediated by TNF, IL-1, GM-CSF,M-CSF

51

♣ is caused by a special immune system that forms Antibodies and/or activated lymphocytes that attack and destroy the specific invading organism or toxin

Adaptive Immunity

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♣ Are gamma globulins called immunoglobulins
♣ Constitute 20% of plasma proteins
♣ Formed by Plasma Cells (activated B-Cells)♣ Variable Portion: determines specificity to antigen
♣ Constant Protion: determines other properties of antibodies

Antibodies

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Divalent antibody,75% of antibodies (most abundant); predominant antibody in secondary responses; smallest (only one able to cross the placenta)

IgG

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Main immunoglobulin concerned with primary immune response; present on all uncommitted B cells; largest

IgM

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Main immunoglobulin in secretions (milk, saliva, tears, respiratory, intestinal and genital tract)

IgA

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Antibody mediated allergies and hypersensitivity

IgE

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Acts as an antigen receptor when present on the surface of certain B lymphocytes

IgD

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Mechanisms of Action of Antibodies DIRECTLY

Agglutination: clumping
Precipitation: insoluble antigen-antibody complex
Neutralization: AB covers the toxic sites of the antigenic agent
Lysis: rupture of the agent

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Mechanisms of Action of Antibodies INDIRECTLY

Via complement system

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♣ Part of your innate and adaptive immunity
♣ Complement proteins are soluble proteins in the blood stream

Complement System

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Complement System responsible for 3 things

- Opsonization: serve as marker that makes it easier to phagocytize foreign bodies
- Membrane Attack Complex: perforate foreign organisms
- Stimulate Inflammation

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Which complement is responsible for opsonization?

c3b

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Which complement is an anaphylatoxin (induces inflammation)?

c3a, c4a, c5a

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Which complement is chemotactic to WBCs?

c5a

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Which complement is part of the Membrane Attach Complex (MAC)?

c5b to c9b

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Types of T cells

♣ T- Helper Cells (CD4, MHC II)
♣ Cytotoxic T Cells (CD8, MHC I)
♣ Suppressor T Cells

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♣ Most numerous of T cells
♣ Various “helper” functions
Ð Regulatory function of lymphokines (IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, Interferon gamma)
Ð Stimulation of growth and proliferation of Cytotoxic T cells & Suppressor T – cells
Ð Stimulation of growth and differentiation of B-cell & antibody formation (IL-4,IL-5&IL-6)
Ð Activation of macrophage system

Helper T cell

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♣ Direct attack cell capable of killing microorganisms
♣ Create “holes” (perforins)
♣ Targets virally infected cells, cancer cells, transplanted cells

Cytotoxic T cell

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♣ Regulatory function by suppressing action of Helper T cells and Cytotoxic T cells
♣ Plays an important role in limiting the ability of the immune system to attack a person’s own body tissue

Suppressor T cells

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- Induced after contact with foreign antigen (usually killed or live attenuated infectious agents)
- Advantage: long term protection
- Disadvantage: slow onset of action

Active immunity

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- Administration of antibody (in antisera) in a vaccine
- Advantage: prompt availability of large amount of antibodies
- Disadvantage: short life span of antibodies, hypersenstivity reaction

Passive immunity