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1

full name of darwins famous book

on the origin of species by means of natural selection

2

date darwin published origin of species

november 24, 1859

3

the origin of species focused biologists' attention on _______

the great diversity of organisms

4

darwin's 2 major points in the origin of species

1. he presented evidence that the many species of organisms presently inhabiting earth are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the modern species
2. he proposed a mechanism for this evolutionary process -- natural selection

5

the basic idea of natural selection is that ________

a population can change over generations if individuls that possess certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals

6

the result of natural selection is _______

evolutionary adaptation -- an accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments

7

we can define evolution as

a change over time in the genetic composition of a population

8

we can also use the tem evolution on a grand scale to mean ________

the gradual appearance of all biological diversity

9

aristotle's views in evolution

he views species as unchanging. through his observations, he recognized certain "affinities" among living things. he concluded that life-forms could be arranged on a ladder, or cale, of increasing complexity, later called the scala naturae

10

scala naturae

"scale of nature"

each form of life, perfect and permanent, had its allotted rung on this ladder.

it was a ladder of increasing complexity

11

carolus linnaeus

swedish physician and botanist who sought to classify life's diversity "for the greater glory of god"

12

linnaeus founded ______ and developed ______

taxonomy;
binomial system of naming organisms according to genus and species

13

taxonomy

the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms

14

the scalar naturae system was a ______ ______

linear hierarchy

15

to linnaeus, the observation that some species resemble each other

didn't imply evolutionary kinship, but rather the pattern of their creation

16

_____ helped to lay the groundwork for darwin's ideas

the study of fossils

17

fossils

remains or traces of organisms from the past, found in sedimentary rocks

18

sedimantary rocks

formed from the sand and mud that settle to the bottom of seas, lakes, and marshes. new layers of sediment cover older ones and compress them into superimposed layers of rock called strata

19

paleontology

study of fossils; largely developed by french scientist Georges Cuvier

20

in examining rock layers in the paris region, cuvier noted that

the deeper the strata, the more dissimilar the fossils are from current life. also, from one stratum to the next, some new species appear while others disappear

21

cuvier staunchly opposed

the idea of gradual evolutionary change

22

cuvier advocated

catastrophism, speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that destroyed many of the species living at the time

23

cuvier proposed that periodic catastrophes

were usually confined to local geographic regions, which were repopulated by species immigrating from other areas

24

gradualism

the idea that profound change can take place through the cumulative effect of slow but continuous processes

25

james hutton

scottish geologist who proposed that earth's geologic feature could be explained by gradual mechanisms CURRENTLY operating in the world. he suggested that valleys were formed by rivers wearing thru rocks and that sedimentary rocks containing marine fossils were formed from particles that had eroded from the land and been carried by rivers to the sea

26

charles lyell

leading geologist of darwin's time. he incorporated hutton's thinking into a more comprehensive theory known as uniformitarianism -- the same geologic processes are operating today as in the past, and at the same rate

27

darwin agreed that if geologic change results from slow, continuous actions rather than sudden events, then

earth must be much older than the 6,000 years that theologians estimated. he later reasoned that similarly slow and subtle prcesses could act on living organisms

28

during the 18th century, several naturalists suggested that

life evolves as environments change

29

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck

french biologist who developed a comprehensive model for how life evolves. he is primarily remembered today not for his visionary recognition that evolutionary chnage explains the fossil record and organisms' adaptations to their environments, but for the incorrect mechanism he proposed to explain how evolution occurs

30

lamarck published his theory in

1809, the year darwin was born

31

by comparing current species with fossil forms, lamarck had found what appeared to be

several lines of descent, each a chronological series of older to younger fossils leading to a living species

32

lamarck's 2 big principles

use and disuse; inheritance of acquired characteristics

both were commonly accepted at that time

33

use and disuse

the idea that parts of the body that are use extensively become larger and stronger, while those that are not used deteriorate

34

inheritance of acquired characteristics

stated that an organism could pass use and disuse modifications to its offspring

35

lamarck also thought that evolution happens because

organisms have an innate drive to become more complex

36

darwin thought that variation was introduced into the evolutionary process through

inheritance of acquired characteristics

37

lamarck was vilified in his own time, esp. by

cuvier, who denied that species ever evolve

38

darwin was born in

1809, ,shrewsbury in western england

39

darwin's father sent darwin to

univ. of edinburgh to study medicine

40

at cambridge, darwin became the protege of

reverend john henslow, a professor of botany

41

john henslow

recommended darwin to captain robert fitzroy, who was preparing the survey ship HMS Beagle for a voyage around the world

42

the primary mission of the Beagle voyage was to

chart poorly known stretches of the south american coastline

43

darwin noted that the plants and animals in temperate regions of south america more closely resembled

species living in the south american tropics than species in temperate regions of europe

44

the south american fossils darwin found, though clearly different from living species, were

distinctly south american in their resemblance to the living organisms of the continent

45

lyell's book

principles of geology

46

darwin experienced geologic chance firsthand when

a violent earthquake rocked the coast of chile, and he observed afterward that the coastline had risen by several feet

47

finding fossils of organisms high in the andes mountains, darwin inferred that

the rocks containing fossils must have been raised there by a long series of similar earthquakes

48

darwin learned from lyell that

the traditional view of a static earth only a few thousand years old was not valid

49

galapagos

a group of geologically young volcanic islands located near the equator about 900 km west of south america

50

darwin found that although the galapagos animals resembled species living on the south american mainland, most of the lived nowhere else in the world. he hypothesized that

the galapagos had been colonized by organisms that had strayed from south america and had then diversified on the various islands

51

darwin perceived _____ and ______ as closely related processes

adaptation to the environment; the origin of new species

52

in the year ____, darwin wrote a long essay on _____ but ____

1844; the origin of species and natural selection; was reluctant to introduce his theory publicly, apparently b/c he anticipated the uproar it would cause

53

lyell, not yet hiself convinced of evolution, nevertheless urged darwin to

publish on the subject before someone else came to the same conclusions and published first

54

alfred russel wallace

young british naturalist working in the east indies who had developed a theory of natural selection similar to darwin's. in june 1858, wallace asked darwin to evaluate his paper and forward it to lyell if it merited publication

55

lyell and a colleague presented wallace's paper + extracts of darwin's unpublished 1844 essay to the

linnean society of london

56

within a decade, darwin's book and its proponents had

convinced most biologists that biological diversity was the product of evolution

57

darwin followed up his 1st book w/ other pioneering work, in particular

an exploration of the type of natural selection known as sexual selection

58

in publishing his theory, darwin developed 2 main ideas:

that evolution explains life's unity and diversity and that natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution

59

in the 1st edition of the origin of species,

darwin didn't use the word evolution until the very end

60

descent w/ modification

a phrase that summarized darwin's view of life. he perceived unity of life, w/ all organisms related thru descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past. as the descendants of that ancestral organism spilled into various habitats over millions of years, they accumulated diverse modifications, or adaptations, that fit them to specific ways of life

61

most branches of evolutions

are dead ends. about 99% of all species that have ever lived are now extinct

62

who are the elephants' nearest relatives

manatees and hyraxes

63

linaeus had realized that ____, but ____

some organisms resemble each other more closely than others, but he hadn't linked these resemblances to evolution

64

to darwin, the linnaean hierarchy reflected

the branching history of the tree of life, with organisms at the various taxonomic levels related through descent from common ancestors

65

for any species population sizes would

increase exponentially if all individuals that are born reproduced succssfully

66

populations tend to

remain stable in size, except for seasonal fluctations

67

production of more individiuals than the environment can support leads to

a struggle for existence among individuals of a population, w/ only a fraction of their offspring surviving each generation

68

darwin perceived an important connection between

natural selection, which results from what he called the struggle for existence, ad the capacity of organisms to "overreproduce"

69

thomas malthus

contended that much of human suffering -- disease, famine, homelessness, and war -- was the inescapable consequence of the human population's potential to increase faster than food and other resources.

70

increases in the frequencies of favored traits in a population,

which are always taking place regardless of whether the environment is changing, are an important source of evolutionary modification

71

darwin derived another piece of his theory from

the many familiar examples of selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals

72

artificial selection

process by which humans have modified other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess derived traits

73

natural selection

is the differential success in reproduction among individuals that vary in their heritable traits. these reproductive differences emerge as each individual interacts w/ its environment

74

over time, natural selection

can increase the adaptation of organisms to their environment

75

if an environment changes over time, or if individuals of a particular species move to a new enviornment,

natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions, sometimes giving rise to new species in the process

76

smallest unit that can evolve

population

77

evolution can be measured only as

changes in relative proportions of heritable variations in a population over a succession of generations

78

although natural selection occurs thru interactions btwn individual organisms and their enviornment,

individuals DO NOT evolve

79

natural selection can amplify or diminish ONLY

heritable traits

80

environmental factors vary from place to place and from time to time. therefore,

a trait that is favorable in one situation may be useless, or even detrimental, in different circumstances

81

natural selection is more a ____ than a ______

process of editing; creative mechanism

82

homology

similarity resulting from common ancestry

83

homologous structures

represent varations on a structural theme that was present in their common ancestor.

similar structure, different function

84

comparative embryology

comparison of early stages of animal development

85

vestigial organs

type of homologous structures. vestigial organs are remnants of structures that served important functions in the organism's ancestors

86

b/c evolution can modify only existing structures and functions, it often

produces less than perfect results

87

biogeography

the geographic distribution of species

88

closely related species tend to

be found in the same geographic region

89

the same ecological niches in distant regions are

occupied by very different, though sometimes similar-looking, species

90

eutherians

mammals that complete their embryonic development in the uterus

91

marsupials

are born as embryos and complete their development in an external pouch

92

analogous/convergent structures

that they serve the same function in different species but they evolved independently rather than from the same embryological material or from the same structures in a common ancestor.

93

endemic

found nowhere else in the world

94

most island species are

closely related to species from the nearest mainland or neighboring island

95

2 islands with similar environments in different parts of the world are populated

not by closely related species but rather by species that resemble those of the nearest mainland, where the environment is often quite different

96

comparative data from biochem, molecular bio, and cell bio suggest that ______ are the ancestors of all life and _____ should precede ______

prokaryotes

prokaryotes; all eukaryotic life

97

the darwinian view of life predicts that evolutionary transitions should

leave signs in the fossil record