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Flashcards in Reactions Deck (53):
1

Free radical sub?

Cl2, UV, heat

-limited Cl2/excess alkane

2

Alkene to alkane?

@reduction

-H2(g), Pt, rtp

-H2(g), Ni, heat

3

H-X to alkene

@elimination

-KOH in ethanol, reflux

4

Alkene to alcohol

@E.A

-industrial: H20(steam), H3PO4 cat., heat, high pressure

-lab
1. Cold H2SO4
2. Heat, H2O

5

Alcohol to Alkene

@elimination

-industrial: Al2O3, heat

-c H2SO4, reflux

6

Alkene to HX

@E.A

1. Conc HX

2. HX(aq) in CCl4

3. HCl(g) generated in Situ

7

Alkene to xx

@E.A

-X2 in CCl4, rtp, dark

8

Alkene to X,OH

@E.A

-X2(aq), rtp, dark

-aq: OH acts a nucleophile
=> major pdt

9

Alkene to diol

@oxidation
*cold

-KMnO4, H2SO4(aq)

-KMnO4, NaOH(aq)

10

Alkene to

1. Carboxylic acid

2. Ketone

3. CO2 + H2O

@oxidative cleavage

-KMnO4, H2SO4, reflux

TERMINAL only

11

Alcohol to ester

@condensation
-+COOH, c H2SO4, reflux

@N.S
CH3COCl, anhyd., rtp

12

Alcohol to RX

@N.S

1. PCl5(s), anhydrous, rtp

2. PCl3(l)/ PBr3(l), anhydrous, rtp

3. SOCl2(l)/ SOBr2(l), anhydrous, rtp

4. conc HCl, ZnCl2/ c HBr

5. HCl(g)/HBr(g) in Situ, NaX(s) + c H2SO4

13

RX to alcohol

@N.S

-NaOH(aq), reflux

14

RX to nitrile (CN)

@N.S

-NaCN in ethanol, reflux

15

Nitrile to increase 4H?

@reduction

1. LiAlH4 in dry ether, rtp

2. H2(g) and w nickel, heat

3. H2(g) with Pt., rtp

16

RCN to alcohol

@hydrolysis

17

RX to ROCH3

@N.S

-CH3ONa, reflux methanol solution

18

RX to Amine (RNH2)

@N.S

-NH3, ethanolic medium, heat is sealed tube


*further substitution in excess to px 4' salt

19

Nitrile to -COOH

@hydrolysis

-acid catalysed: heat under reflux with dul.H2SO4

+NH4+

20

Nitrile to COO-

@hydrolysis

-base catalysed: heat under reflux with NaOH(aq)

+NH3

21

Pri alcohol -> aldehyde

@oxidation

K2Cr2O7(aq), H2SO4(aq), immediate distillation

22

methanol to CO2+H20

@oxidation

KMnO4(aq), H2SO4(aq), reflux

23

Tri-iodomethane test
OH
|
(R)-C-CH3
|
H



@oxidation

I2(aq), NaOH(aq), reflux

24

Esters, amides, acid chlorides

-> carboxylic acid

1. Ester
- HCl(aq), heat

2. Amides
-NaOH(aq), heat

3. Acid chloride
-no need heat

25

Carboxylic acid to Pri alcohol

@reduction

LiAlH4 in dry ether, rtp

26

Carboxylic acid to acyl chloride

PCl5(s), PCl3(l), SOCl2(l), anhyd, rtp

27

Sec alcohol to aldehyde

@oxidation

•K2Cr2O7, dilute H2SO4, heat under reflux

•KMnO4, H2SO4, reflux

28

Aldehyde and ketone to hydroxynitriles

@N.A

HCN,

Small amt of NaOH(aq)/NaCN(s), cold

29

Sec alcohol to ketone

•K2Cr2O7, d.H2SO4, reflux

•KMnO4, d.H2SO4, reflux

30

Aldehyde to Pri alcohol

@reduction

•H2(g), Ni, heat

•H2(g), Pt, rtp

•LiAlH4 in dry ether, rtp

•NaBH4 in methanol, rtp

31

Ketone to Sec alcohol

@reduction

•H2(g), Ni, heat

•H2(g), Pt, rtp

•LiAlH4 in dry ether, rtp

•NaBH4 in methanol, rtp

32

Methanoic and ethandiotic acid to CO2 and water

@oxidation

KMnO4(aq), H2SO4

33

Carboxylic acid to O-Na+

@redox

Na(s), rtp

34

Carboxylic acid to

O-Na+ + H20

@acid base

•NaOH(aq), rtp

•Na2CO3(s)/(aq), rtp

•NaHCO3(s)/(aq), rtp

35

Carboxylic acid to

O
II
R-C-X

@N.S

•anhyd PCl5(s), rtp

•anhyd PCl3(l)/PBr3(l), rtp

•anhyd SOCl2(l)/ SOBr2(l), rtp

36

Ester to carboxylic acid

@hydrolysis, N.S

•HCl(aq)/ H2SO4(aq)/ HNO3(aq), reflux

•NaOH(aq), reflux

37

Ester to Pri alcohol

@reduction

LiAlH4 in dry ether, rtp

38

Acid chloride to carboxylic acid

@hydrolysis, N.S

H2O(l), rtp

+HCl

39

Acid chloride to ester

@condensation, N.S

1. CH3CH2OH, Anhyd, rtp

2. Involving phenol:
•NaOH(aq) or pyridine
•fb CH3COCl, anhyd condition

40

Acid chloride to amides

@condensation, N.S

•cNH3, rtp

•cCH3NH3, rtp

•c(CH3)2NH, rtp

41

Nitrogenous cmpd to carboxylic acid

@hydrolysis

1. Acidic medium (-COOH)
•HCl(aq)/ H2SO4(aq)/ HNO3(aq), reflux

2. Alkaline medium (-COO-)
•NaOH(aq), reflux

42

Nitrogenous cmpd to amines

@reduction

•LiAlH4 in dry ether, rtp

•H2(g), Ni(s), heat

•H2(g), Pt(s), rtp

43

Nitrobenzene to phenyl amine

@reduction

•Sn(s), cHCl, reflux
•fb NaOH(aq)

44

Amines to R-N+-H3

@acid-base, neutralisation

HCl(aq), H2SO4(aq), HNO3(aq), rtp

45

Amines to ester

@condensation, N.S


CH3COCl, anhyd, rtp

46

Amides to amines

@reduction

•LiAlH4 in dry ether, rtp

•H2(g), Ni(s), heat

•H2(g), Pt(s), rtp

47

Amines to carboxylic acid

@acid catalysed hydrolysis

d. HCl(aq), H2SO4(aq), HNO3(aq), reflux

48

Amines to carboxylate salt

@alkaline catalysed hydrolysis

NaOH(aq), reflux

49

What's the difference bt HCl (aq) in

1. cold
2. hot

cold: acid base

hot: hydrolysis

50

Thermal cracking?

High temp (~900)

High temp (~500) w catalyst

51

CH3CH2OH + PCl5 ->?

CH3CH2Cl + POCl3 + HCl

52

3CH3CH2OH + PCl3 ->?

3CH3CH2Cl + H3PO3

53

CH3CH2OH + SOCl2 ->?

CH3CH2Cl + SO2 + HCl