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Chemsitry A Level > Reactions And Reagents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reactions And Reagents Deck (35):
1

Nitration of benzene

HNO_3 + H_2SO_4
Above 50C

2

Halogenation of benzene

Halogen carrier eg
FeCl_3 AlBr_3 FeBr_3

3

Alkylation of benzene

AlCl_3 (adds an alkyl group to the ring)

4

Acylation of benzene

Acyl chloride + AlCl_3

=aromatic ketone

5

Phenol + NaOH

Phenoxide salt + water

6

Bromination of phenol

Decolourise bromine water
No catalyst
Room temp

7

Nitration of phenol

2 and 4 sub products
Dilute HNO_3
Room temp

8

Reducing an aldehyde and ketone

NaBH_4/H_2O
=alcohols

9

Adding across carbonyl double bond

+HCN

H_2SO_4/NaCN
=hydroxynitrile

10

Carboxylic acid + metal

Carboxylate salt + H_2 gas

Redox

11

Carboxylic acid + metal oxide

Salt + water

Neutralisation

12

Carboxylic acid + carbonate

CO_2 + salt + water

Neutralisation

13

Acid anhydride

2 carboxylic acids added = removal of water

14

Ester via acid hydrolysis

Reflux with dilute aqueous acid

(Broken down by water)
Reversible

Produces
Carboxylic acid + alcohol

15

Ester via alkaline hydrolysis

Reflux with dilute OH- ions

Irreversible

Products
Carboxylate ion + alcohol

16

Acyl chloride + alcohol

Ester

17

Acyl chloride + phenol

Ester

18

Acyl chloride + water

Carboxylic acid + steamy HCl fumes

19

Acyl chloride + ammonia/ amine

Amide
(Nucleophilic add)

20

Acid anhydride reactions

Similar to acyl chlorides but less reactive = used in labs

21

Amine + acid

Salt

22

Formation of primary amines

1- form salt
2- amine formation

Solvent = ethanol (prevents formation of alcohols)

Excess ammonia = prevent further sub to secondary or tertiary amines

23

Prep aromatic amines

Reflux with Tin catalyst and conc HCl= salt

2- excess NaOH= aromatic amine

24

Amine + acid

Salts NH_3+

25

Amino acids + aqueous alkali

COOH reacts = salt + water

26

Esterification of amino acids

Add alcohol and conc H_2SO_4

= Ester + water

27

Hydrolysis polyesters

Base (NaOH/Water) = salt + alcohol

Acid (H+/water) = carboxylic acid + alcohol

28

Hydrolysing polyamides

Base (NaOH/water) = salt + amine

Acid (H+/water) = carboxylic acid + NH_3+

29

Reduction of nitriles

H_2 + nickel catalyst
=amine

30

Hydrolysis of nitriles

Water + HCl + heat
=carboxylic acid

31

Allene-alcohol

H_3PO_4/H_2O
(Hydration)

32

Primary alcohol-Alkene

H_2SO_4

33

Haloalkane-alcohol

NaOH(aq)

34

Haloalkane-nitrile

NaCN

35

Purification of organic liquids

-separating funnel
-acid impurities removed by NaCO_3(aq)
-drying agent anhydrous CaCl_2
-solid salt filtered
-redistilled