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Flashcards in Real Property NY Distinctions Deck (40)
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Equitable conversion: Who bears the risk of loss in NY?

The seller. The risk of property loss remains that of the seller until buyer (1) takes possession of the property OR (2) title is transferred, whichever is first.


What is a fee simple determinable called in New York?

Fee on limitation


What is a fee simple subject to condition subsequent called in New York?

Fee on condition


What is a right of re-entry called in New York? (three terms)

Right of entry / power of termination / right of reacquisition


What is a vested remainder subject to complete defeasance called in NY?

Remainder vested subject to complete defeasement / reaminder vested subject to total divestment


What are contingent remainders / executory interests called in New York?

Remainders subject to condition precedent


Does termination of the preceding estate terminate a remainder subject to condition precedent in NY?

No. Unlike the common law, remainders are not subject to destructibility.


What three common law doctrines have been abolished in New York?

(1) fee tail
(2) rule of shelley's case
(3) doctrine of worthier title


Is a right of reacquisition transferable to a third party in New York?

yes. Transferable like any possessory estate.


What must you do to preserve a future interest in land in New York?

Must record "Declaration of Intention to Preserve Restrictions on Use of Land" between 27 and 30 years after interest was created. Can refile very 9-10 years after that.


Are right of reverters automatically exercised in New York?

No. Must petition to retain possession of the property.


Does New York follow the "wait and see" approach to the RAP?



Has New York changed the fertile octogenarian rule in the RAP?

Yes. NY presumes that a woman over 55yo cannot have additional children.


Does the RAP apply to commercial options in NY?

Yes. And corporations cannot be measuring lives. Options must be exercised within 21 years unless there is a measuring life.


When can a life tenant make changes to a property (ameliorative waste) in NY? (5 steps)

(1) alteration is one a "prudent owner" would make
(2) alteration will not reduce market value
(3) alteration does not violate express terms of any agreement
(4) life expectancy of life tenant is 5 years or more, AND
(5) future interest holders are given notice 30 days prior


Is NY a lien theory or title theory state?

Lien theory. Liens do not sever a joint tenancy.


How must residential leases be written in NY? And what is the penalty if they aren't?

Must be written in a clear and coherent manner. Failure subjects landlord to damages which result AND a $50 fine.


Must landlords give a tenant at-will notice before terminating?

Yes. 30 days notice.


What damages are owed a tenant wrongfully evicted by a landlord?

Treble damages in NY


What actions may an incoming tenant take against a tenant held over in sufferance?

(1) action against holdover tenant
(2) void the lease


Can a lease include a "no children" clause?

No, except for facilities designated for people 55yo or older


Does a landlord have a duty to mitigate damages by re-letting premises in NY?

No. No duty to mitigate.


What damages can a landlord collect from a tenant who remains in possession after a written notice to leave?

Can collect double rent after demand to leave is made.


Can a landlord withhold consent to an assignment of a lease?

Yes. Can withhold for any reason in NY.


Can a landlord withhold consent to a sublease of a lease?

Yes, but cannot arbitrarily withhold. Failure to respond to a request for sublease is deemed consent.


What is the time frame for adverse possession in NY?

10 years


Can co-tenants adversely possess against another co-tenant?

Yes. But the co-tenant seeking to adversely possess must show "ouster," i.e., express communication of the intention to exclude the other tenant. Mere possession is not enough.


Can ouster be implied?

Yes. Ouster is implied if co-tenant exclusively possessed property for 10 years. Then, the tenant must hold exclusivity for another 10 years in order to adversely possess. (20 years total)


What damages are available for unmarketable title?

(1) recovery of purchase price
(2) expenses of title examination
(3) nominal damages


Does NY have a statutory right of redemption?