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1

Why did the Liberals introduce reforms?

1. Representation: growth of trade unions, Labour Party, Chartism, syndicalism and radical socialism
2. Politics and Ideology: Gladstonian vs modern liberalism, competition with Conservatives, desire to separate from Conservatism
3. National Efficiency: Boer War, competition with other industrial powers, Germany and Bismarck, potential of World War 1
4. Key Figures: Beatrice Webb, Winston Churchill, David Lloyd George
Booth, Seebohm Rowntree and John Galt
6. The scale of the problem: living conditions, working conditions, wages, worsening poverty, failure of relief programmes
7. Increasing information about the poor: social reformers, reports, the Royal Commission 1905 and its Minority Report, Gustav Dorré and Andrew Mearns