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1

Freezing broccoli

Fresh product
Blanching (preserves colour, inactivates surface enzymes(polyphenol oxidase) of F/V, easy removal of skin)
Cooled (stops the cooking process)
Freezer bag and remove air first (prevents freezer burn= air reaches surface of the food and dries it).

2

Apple chips

Wash well and remove bad spots. Remove skin to allow moisture to escape.
Very thick slices= the food will not be completely dry and molds will form after a certain time. <0.5cm is good.
Very thin slices= they will break too easily
6-10% moisture may remain.
1,5h per side at 200F in oven or dehydrator (best)

3

Kale chips

Wash well and don't dry the stem (it's too thick). 5-15mins at 350F. Also work in microwave.

4

Jardinière

Technique used: Hot packing instead of raw packing because vegetables are cooked before being put into the jars.
Place and cover jars in boiling/simmering 180F/82C water. Same for SNAP lids but not boiling water because the glue on the lids will dissolve in water otherwise (180F/82C). Vinegar, salt, sugar water to boil. Add spices/herbs + vegetables (except peppers). Add peppers and put into the jar. Using spatula, remove air bubbles (to avoid them from forming big bubbles during boiling the jars) and arrange headspace. Place snap lids and twist until fingertips tight (allowing air to escape during boiling), boil for 10mins and check seal.

5

Classic strawberry jam

Procedure for jars (same as jardiniere). Strawberry + lemon juice + margarine + pectin + sugar to boil. Pour jam into jar, boil, remove from boiling water and check seal.

6

Light marmelade

Same procedure as jardinière. Remove orange and lemon peel. Scrape white pith from peel and throw it out. Slice peel paper-thin. Remove membrane and seeds of peeled fruits (over a bowl to catch the pulp and juice) and throw it away. Put peel, pulp, juice, no sugar needed pectin over boil for a few minutes. Pour into jars. Boil, etc.

7

Mango raspberry freezer jam

Wash and rinse the jars with soap. Mango (Peel pit and chop) + crushed raspberries + pectin for freezer jams and mix. Pour into jars, seal tightly + let stand 30 mins until it thickens + Refrigerate or freeze.

8

Chia seed spread

Process blueberries in food processor. Blueberries + maple syrup + chia seeds = stir until it thickens. Remove from heat, add vanilla, seal it and refrigerate it. A fiber (called mucilage) excreted from chia seeds that absorbs water and makes the chia swell.

9

Kimchi

Korean lactic-acid fermentation.
Cover napa cabbage with salt and water for 12-24h = when a leaf is folded in half, it doesn't break (it's soft and elastic). Rinse it and squeeze out the liquid. Mix all ingredients (daikon radish, korean red pepper powder, fish sauce, ginger, garlic ,etc.) Pour into jar, seal it, let it sit for 24h, burp it and refrigerate. Can be kept up to a month.

10

Winter kale salad with kombucha vinaigrette

Veggies, fruits and kombucha + apple cider vinegar vinaigrette. Nothing special about this recipe.

11

Fermented ketchup

Special ingredient : Whey. Taking from gelatin-free yogurt that has been hung in a cheesecloth, collect the whey in a bowl underneath the cheesecloth. Transferred to fridge after 2-7days.

12

Fermented pickles

Dill, salt, garlic, mustard seeds. Transferred to fridge after 2-7days. No vinegar so bacteria are not killed so transformation of sugars into lactic acid by probiotic bacteria. Lactic acid serves as preservation after. In industry, vinegar kills microorganisms by giving directly a low pH.

13

Yogurt pasta dough

Mix ingredients, let dough rest for 0,5-3h. Pasta machine until 2mm. Special ingredient: Kefir or yogurt. Milk + kefir grains (bacteria and yeasts) = kefir. From Eastern Europe.

14

Creamy miso pasta sauce

Special ingredient: Miso. Fermenting soybeans with salt, koji (rice fermented by with fungus Aspergillus Oryzae) and sometimes rice, barley or seaweed. From Japan.

15

Vanilla ice milk (demonstration)

Replace cream with milk. Mix ingredients well until sugar is dissolved. Sugar lowers the freezing point of solution, ensuring smaller crystals and smoother product. Put a bowl of ice, water and salt below the mixing bowl to withdraw the heat (because of coarse salt (gros sel)) from the mixture to allow ice crystal formation.

16

Strawberry frozen yogurt

Bowl of ice, water and salt under the mixing bowl to withdraw heat from the mixture to allow ice crystal formation. Crush strawberry and sugar together. Add to cold yogurt and mix.

17

Granita

Zest of lemon + lemon juice.
Heat water and sugar until dissolved, add zest. Chill. Remove zest and add lemon juice. Pour into frozen tray, no more than 1/2inch. Put in freezer and scrape every 30minutes to break clumps. Final product is slushy. Can be done with mango, cantaloup, watermelon or berries.

18

Chocolate fudge

Importance of agitation and temperature on crystallization. Mix all ingredients until combined, boil for 7-12mins, low heat for 2 mins, boil without stirring until reaches 236F (5mins). Do the cold water test (drop of syrup into cold water glass) to have soft ball stage (stays together and is soft). Remove from heat, add butter and vanilla but DONT MIX until it reaches 110F (1hour). Shake vigorously until it loses its shine and becomes paler brown (5-10mins). Pour into buttered-foil pan and do not scrape crystals that stick to pot. If stirring when it's too hot, crystallization of nuclei happens and sugar molecules get around and creates big crystals. We don't want large crystals in fudge.

19

Marshmallows

Importance of agitation and temperature on crystallization. Gelatin + water + whisk attachment. Sugar + corn syrup + salt + water in saucepan until reaches 240F on a candy thermometer, after remove from heat. Pour soften syrup into gelatin but don't let the syrup touch the beaters. Beat until thick and fluffy and cool until it reaches 95F. Pour into greased square pan and let sit at room temperature.

20

Caramelized popcorn

Importance of agitation and temperature on crystallization.Make the kernels pop with vegetable oil. Separately, heat the sugar mixture + corn syrup until 298-300F and do cold water test. Pour the hot sugar mixture while stirring to avoid large clumps formation.

21

Peanut brittle

Importance of agitation and temperature on crystallization. Heat Water, sugar, corn syrup until soft ball stage (234F). After add peanuts and margarine and cook until 300F (hard crack). We add baking soda, that reacts with acid, because it creates CO2 holes.

22

What makes canned foods safe to eat?

Temperature high enough to kill microorganisms and airtight vacuum seal = keeps air and microorganisms away from entering.

23

Clostrodium Botulinum

Requires special treatment because forms spores that are heat-resistant. Produces a deadly toxin. Has to be heated at 116C in a pressure canner or very acidic environment to be killed.

24

What is the commercial pectin made of ?

Apple pomace or citrus products

25

How do you know the jar has a good vacuum seal?

There should be no flex when center is pressed. Sealed lids curve downwards.

26

Recipes often require different measurements or indications for this component. What is it?

Headspace

27

How can blanching be helpful in drying F/V?

Prevents discoloration, slows enzymes activity and breaks the skin to allow moisture to escape.

28

Why is burping important?

Bacteria ferments sugar (glycolysis) and transform them into pyruvate. They ferment pyruvate (fermentation) and transform it to lactic acid or ethanol and one of the product is CO2. Burping to avoid accumulation of CO2.

29

Commercial products available to burp cans

3-piece airlock system. Go see video to understand mechanism.

30

Difference between sourdough starter and yeast starter

Sourdough starter: A piece of an sourdough fermented bread that we use to regenerate another sourdough bread.
Yeast pre-ferment: Preserved powder
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