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Flashcards in Regulation Of Blood Sugar Deck (17):

What is blood sugar a form of? What organs determine how much of it is in the blood?

Blood sugar is a form of glucose. The pancreas and adrenal glands secrete hormones which affect how much of it is in the blood.


Where is insulin produced and what does it do?

Insulin is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin converts glucose into glycogen in a process called glycogenesis.


What is the process called that converts glycogen back into glucose? Which hormone does this?

The process is called Glycogenolysis. The hormone that converts glycogen back into glucose is called glucagon and is secreted by alpha cells.


The cells which produce blood sugar hormones in the pancreas are called?

Islets of Langerhans


What does the hormone cortisol do?

Helps to regulate carbohydrate metabolism and increase blood sugar levels.


Gluconeogenesis is the process of?

Converting substances other than carbohydrates into simple sugars.


What two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla increase blood sugar levels?

Adrenaline and Noradrenaline


Where is lactic acid broken down?

Lactic acid is broken down in the liver.


What is a normal, healthy blood sugar level?

3.5-5.5 millimoles per litre


Excess blood sugar is converted into?

Excess blood sugar is converted into fat by the liver.


What does BIGA stand for?

Beta cells secrete insulin and alpha cels secrete glucagon.


The response to increase BGL is:

Muscles break down less glycogen to glucose and lower cortisol and adrenaline causes cells to decrease glycogen conversion.


The modulator that occurs when there are increased blood glucose levels:

Beta cells release more insulin, the adrenal cortex releases less cortisol and the adrenal medulla releases less adrenaline/noradrenaline.


What occurs at the modulator of the feedback loop when BGL are lowered?

Alpha cells release more glucagon, the adrenal cortex releases more cortisol and the adrenal medulla releases more adrenaline/noradrenaline.


The response that occurs to lowered blood glucose levels are:

Muscles break down more glycogen to glucose and cortisol and adrenaline cause cells to increase glycogen conversion.


When BGL are increased what response occurs?

Increased glucose uptake by cells, glycogenesis (increased conversion of glucose to glycogen), increased protein synthesis and fat storage.


When low BGL occur what is the response to this?

Glycogenolysis - the conversion of glycogen to glucose
Glyconeogenesis - increased conversion of fats and proteins to glucose.