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Flashcards in Regulations Deck (36)
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1

What legislation specifies the dose limits to staff and the public?

IRR 99

2

What are the whole body dose limits set out in IRR99 for:
a) Employees (>18yo)
b) Employees (<18yo)
c) Women of child-bearing age.
d) Pregnant staff.
e) General Public

a) 20mSv/yr
b) 6mSv/yr
c) 13mSv for any consecutive period of 3 months
d) 1mSv to the foetus for the declared duration of the pregnancy
e) 1mSv

3

What are the dose limits allowed for Employees (>18yo):
a) to the lens of the eye
b) to the skin
c) to the extremities

a) 150mSv
b) 500mSv averaged over 1cm^2
c) 500mSv

4

What are the dose limits allowed for Employees (<18yo):
a) to the lens of the eye
b) to the skin
c) to the extremities

a) 50mSv
b) 150mSv averaged over 1cm^2
c) 150mSv

5

What are the dose limits allowed for Other Persons:
a) to the lens of the eye
b) to the skin
c) to the extremities

a) 15mSv
b) 50mSv averaged over 1cm^2
c) 50mSv

6

What are the duties of the Practitioner under IR(ME)R?

"The practitioner shall be responsible for the justification of a medical exposure and such other aspects of a medical exposure as is provided for in [IR(ME)R]."

7

What are the duties of the Operator under IR(ME)R?

"The operator shall be responsible for each and every practical aspect which he carries out as well as for any authorization given pursuant to regulation 6(5) (in the absence of a practitioner) where such authorization is not made in accordance with the guidelines referred to in regulation 6(5)."

8

What are the duties of the Referer under IR(ME)R?

"The referrer shall supply the practitioner with sufficient medical data (such as previous diagnostic information or medical records) relevant to the medical exposure requested by the practitioner to enable the practitioner to decide on whether there is a sufficient net benefit as required by regulation 6(1)(a)."

9

Which legislation contains information about the appointment and duties RPAs and RPSs?

IRR99

10

Which legislation contains information about Medical Physics Experts?

IR(ME)R

11

What is the hierarchy of radiation protection?

1. Engineering Controls
2. Systems of Work
3. PPE

12

Which legislation specifies the hierarchy of radiation protection?

IRR99

13

What is meant by "Justification" in terms of Radiation Safety?

No practice involving exposures to radiation should be adopted unless it produces sufficient benefit to the exposed individuals to offset the detriment it causes.

14

What is meant by "Optimisation" in terms of Radiation Safety?

The magnitude of individual doses, the number of people exposed... should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, (ALARA principle) with economic and social factors being taken into account.

15

What is meant by "Limitation" in terms of Radiation Safety?

The exposure of individuals should be subject to dose limits. These are aimed at ensuring that no individual is exposed to radiation risks that are judged to be unacceptable...in any normal circumstances

16

Who enforces IRR99 compliance?

Health and Safety Executive

17

What are the dose rates that designate a controlled area?

IDR: >2000uSv/hr
TADR: >7.5uSv/hr
TADR2000: >3uSv/hr

18

What are the dose rates that designate a supervised area?

IDR: >7.5uSv/hr
TADR: >2.5uSv/hr
TADR2000: >0.5uSv/hr

19

What are the dose rates that designate an unsupervised/public area?

IDR: >7.5uSv/hr
TADR: >0.5uSv/hr
TADR2000: >0.15uSv/hr

20

What are the minimum requirements for a set of local rules?

Description of controlled and supervised areas
Name and contact details of RPS
Arrangements to restrict access
Conditions of entry for non-classified workers.
Instructions for safe working practice
Dose investigation levels
Contingency plans

21

What are the duties of the Radiation Protection Advisor?

Gives advice to employer on radiation safety including:
- Implementation of requirements for controlled and supervised areas
- Advice on plans for future radiation installations, modifications, design and safety features.
- Calibration and proper use of equipment for monitoring radiation.
- Periodic testing of control and Safety features and systems of work

22

What qualities make a good Radiation Protection Supervisor?

Full-time employee in department
Sufficiently senior to ensure compliance.
Needs to liaise frequently with RPA.

23

What information must be given to a comforter and carer before they take on the role?

Must be informed of risks
Must be informed of special procedures to restrict their exposure
Must willingly accept the dose and risk involved

24

What is the dose limit of a comforter and carer?

No limit, but 5mSv per episode dose constraint.

25

Who enforces IR(ME)R?

Care Quality Commission

26

What are the general principles of Radiation Protection set out in IR(ME)R?

- All diagnostic procedures may carry some personal risk
- Only necessary medical exposures should be carried out
- Alternative methods e.g. using non-ionising radiation should be considered
- All medical exposures must be justified (risk v. benefit)
- Diagnostic exposures as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP)

27

What is the minimum information the referrer must supply?

- Unique Patient identifier
- Clinical information to justify the exposure
- Information re: pregnancy, last menstrual period, breastfeeding
- Signature

28

Explain what is meant by a Diagnostic Reference Level.

- Must be established for each standard diagnostic and nuclear medicine examination for a standard patient cohort
- May be based on patient doses measured within a QA programme, but should also take account of national guidelines
- Expressed in dose quantities (entrance surface dose, screening time, mAs, DAP etc., depending on the type of equipment and examination)
- Reviewed at least every three years or when changes are made to equipment or procedures
- Investigation required if patient doses regularly exceed DRL

29

What types of radiation incidents are reported to the HSE?

Malfunctions/Defects in equipment

30

What types od radiation incidents are reported to CQC?

Human Error.