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A2 AQA Psychology > Relationships > Flashcards

Flashcards in Relationships Deck (39):
1

Sexual Selection

Evolutionary explanation of partner preference.
Attributes or behaviours that increase reproductive success are passed on.

2

Human Reproductive Behaviour

Any behaviours which relate to opportunities to reproduce and increase the survival chances of our genes.

3

Self-disclosure

Revealing personal information about yourself to a partner, which can strengthen a romantic bond when used appropriately.

4

Physical Attractiveness

How appealing we find a person's face - there's an assumption that we seek to form relationships with the most attractive person available.

5

Anisogamy

The differences between male and female sex cells.

6

Male Gametes

Sperm - extremely small, highly mobile, created continuously in vast numbers from puberty to old age, don't require much energy to produce.

7

Female Gametes

Eggs/ ova - relatively large, static, produced at intervals for a limited number of fertile years, require huge investment of energy.

8

Inter-sexual selection

Refers to mate choices of males or females (quality over quantity).

9

Sexy Sons Hypothesis: Fisher, 1930

A female mates with a male who has a desirable characteristic, this 'sexy' trait is inherited by her son.

10

Intra-sexual selection

Refers to the competition between males to be able to mate with a female (quantity over quality).

11

Social Penetration Theory: Altman and Taylor, 1973

The gradual process of revealing your inner self to someone else.
Involves reciprocal exchange of information between intimate partners.

12

Reciprocity: Reis and Shaver, 1988

A balance of self-disclosure between both partners results in a more successful romantic relationship.

13

Matching Hypothesis: Waltster et al, 1966

The belief that we do not select the most attractive person as a prospective partner, but we are attracted to people who approximately 'match' us in physical attractiveness.

14

Filter Theory

A series of different factors progressively limits the range of available romantic partners to a much smaller pool of possibilities.

15

Social Demography

First level of filter theory.
Geographical location and social class.
Many relationships are formed between partners who share social demographic characteristics.

16

Similarity in attitudes

Second level of filter theory.
We find partners who share our basic beliefs and values in the earlier stages of a relationship.

17

Complementarity

Third level of filter theory.
Similarity becomes less important as a relationship develops.
It is replaced by a need for your partner to balance your traits with opposite ones of their own.

18

Social Exchange Theory (SET) - Thibault and Kelley

How relationships form and develop.
It assumes that romantic partners act out of self-interest in exchanging rewards and costs.

19

Rewards, costs and profits - SET

A satisfying and committed relationships when rewards exceed costs and potential alternatives are less attractive than the current relationship.
Rewards = companionship, sex, emotional support.

20

Comparison Level - SET (CL)

The amount of reward you believe you deserve to get.
Develops out of our experiences from previous relationships.

21

Comparison Level for Alternatives - SET (CLalt)

Duck (1994) - the CLalt we adopt depends on the state of the current relationship.
Being in a satisfying relationship may mean you might not notice other alternatives exist.

22

Stages of relationship development

Sampling stage, bargaining stage, commitment stage, institutionalisation stage.

23

Equity Theory: Walster et al, 1978

An economic theory of how relationships develop.
Acknowledges impact of rewards and costs on relationship satisfaction, criticises SET for ignoring equity.

24

Equity

Fairness.

25

Commitment

A romantic partner's intention or desire to continue a relationship, reflecting a belief that the relationship has a viable long-term future.

26

Satisfaction

The extent to which romantic partners feel the rewards of the relationship exceed the costs.

27

Comparison with alternatives

A judgement that partners make concerning whether a relationship with a different partner would bring more rewards and fewer costs.

28

Investment

The resources associated with a romantic relationship which the partners would lose if the relationships were to end.

29

Rusbult's Investment Model

Satisfaction with comparison alternatives, investment size, satisfaction versus commitment, relationship maintenance mechanisms.

30

Absence of Gating

Face-to-face relationships fail to form sometimes due to obstacles such as facial disfigurements that some people might find off-putting.
These barriers are absent in computer-mediated communication.

31

Parasocial Relationships

Those which are similar to 'normal' relationships but lack a key element.
They are one-sided, unreciprocated relationships, (usually with a celebrity).

32

Levels of Parasocial Relationship: McCutcheon et al, 2002

A three-step description of one sided relationships: entertainment-social, intense-personal, borderline pathological.

33

Entertainment-social

Least intense level of celebrity worship.
Celebrities are viewed as sources of entertainment and fuel for social reaction.

34

Intense-personal

Intermediate level of celebrity worship.
Reflects a greater personal involvement in a parasocial relationship

35

Borderline pathological

Strongest level of celebrity worship.
Features uncontrollable fantasies and some extreme behaviours, such as spending a large sum of money on a celebrity-related object.

36

Absorption-addiction model: McCutcheon, 2002

Explains parasocial relationships as total pre-occupation in a celebrity's life, plus an addictive striving after a stronger involvement.

37

Absorption

Seeking fulfilment in celebrity worship motivates the individual to focus their attention as far as possible on the celebrity, to become pre-occupied in their existence and identify with them.

38

Addiction

Individual needs to sustain their commitment to the relationship by feeling a stronger and closer involvement with the celebrity. This may lead to more extreme behaviours and delusional thinking.

39

Attachment Theory

An explanation of how an enduring emotional bond forms between two people that persists over time. Leads to certain behaviours such as clinginess and proximity-seeking.