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Flashcards in Relationships and processes Deck (11):

Outline what is meant by the hidden curriculum.

The hidden curriculum refers to the lessons which are learned but not openly intended to be taught. It involves learning of norms, values, beliefs and practices. For example, punctuality, dress code and the hierarchical structure is learned without intent.


Labelling theory states that teachers can create self-fulfilling prophecies. Briefly outline the steps involves in this.

Students are judged and not treated accordingly, in essence. A 'troublemaker' is disciplined more harshly and this creates a self-fulfilling prophecy which is internalised, thus overriding their self-concept and becoming a master status. The label is how the student expected to behave by the teacher.


Provide some evidence for labelling theory.

Gillborn and Youdell showed that black pupils that are labelled as a threat to authority were disciplined more harshly than white classmates for the same behaviours went on to internalise this label and thus become more deviant.


What processes are active in schools?

Setting and streaming.


Define streaming.

Streaming refers to the sorting of students into classes according to ability. This isn't very good because students are likely to be better at some subjects whilst struggling with the others.


Define setting.

Setting refers to the sorting of students into classes according to their ability on a subject-by-subject basis. This is good as students can work at their own level and pace, however, it can lead to low self-esteem.


Ball argued that sets and streams can lead to increased differences in educational achievement. What did he find when studying this?

Ball found that teachers had high expectations in high ability classes whilst negative labels were attached in lower sets.


Mixed ability classes avoid worsening gaps of different achievement, however, teachers still hold low expectations in these.

This is where students are sorted into classes that aren't based on ability - all students are taught together.


Students form pro or anti school subcultures. Under what circumstances students form anti-school subcultures?

In a grammar school, Lacey found that the bottom stream students that were labelled as failures formed anti-school subcultures.


Fuller studied high ability black girls. Briefly outline his findings.

Fuller found that high ability black girls in Y11 formed pro-school subcultures in order to challenge the racist labels attached by the teachers and succeed by themselves.


Anti-school subcultures form due to the lack of status from school work. Who investigated this?

Willis found that working-class lads formed anti-school subcultures which gained status from disrupting lessons