Flashcards in Relevant Case Study Revision Deck (52):
Name Stuart Hall's Theory and what it involves.
Reception Theory - States that a media text is encoded with different values and messages by the producer and decoded by the audience/viewer.
What are the different ways a text can be decoded, stated by the Reception Theory?
Dominant Reading, Oppositional Reading and Negotiated Reading.
What is meant by a "Dominant Reading"?
When the viewer agrees with everything in a media text. This is considered a successful reading.
What is meant by a "Oppositional Reading"?
When the viewer disagrees with everything in a media text. This is considered an unsuccessful reading.
What is meant by a "Preferred Reading"?
When the viewer agrees with parts of the media text, but creates their own views on the rest. This is still considered a successful reading.
What is Abraham Maslow famous for?
The Hierarchy of Needs.
How many levels are there in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and what are they?
5. Physiological, Safety, Belonging, Esteem and Self-Actualisation.
From bottoms to top, what is the order of needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
Physiological, Safety, Belonging, Esteem and Self-Actualisation.
What is "Physiological Needs" about? What layer of the Hierarchy of Needs is it?
About acquiring the essentials to live, such as Food, Water, Sleep, Breathing, Homeostasis etc.
This is layer 5 (Bottom).
What is "Safety Needs" about? What layer of the Hierarchy of Needs is it?
About ensuring safety in yourself and others. This can be safety in the Body/Health, Family, Employment, Property, Resources etc.
This is layer 4 (Second from Bottom).
What is "Belonging Needs" about? What layer of the Hierarchy of Needs is it?
About friendship and love to you and others.
This is layer 3 (Middle).
What is "Esteem Needs" about? What layer of the Hierarchy of Needs is it?
About gaining confidence through Achievement, Respect, Self Esteem etc.
This is layer 2 (Second from Top).
What is "Self-Actualisation Needs" about? What layer of the Hierarchy of Needs is it?
About being intellectual. This is the in the form of Morality, Creativity, Problem Solving, Lack of Prejudice etc.
This is layer 1 (Top).
What is Tzvetan Todorov famous for?
Theory on Plot Structure.
What is Todorov's Theory about?
That every text follows the same plot of Equilibrium, Dis-Equilibrium, New-Equilibrium.
When did First-Wave Feminism occur?
What was the objective of First-Wave Feminism?
Spreading awareness of Legal Issues with Women's rights and gaining equality for Women.
What is Vladimir Propp famous for?
Theory on Character Archetypes.
What is Propp's Theory about?
That every text has the same character archetypes to drive the plot.
What Archetypes are there in Propp's Theory?
Hero, Villian, Princess (and Father), Dispatcher, False Hero, Donor and Helper.
What is Roland Barthes famous for?
Codes in Narratives.
What is Enigma Codes about?
When the producer of the text controls how much they want the audience to know about the text at any given time. Used to create mystery in the narrative.
What is Action Codes about?
Where events or actions in the story develop the narrative of the text.
What is Blumler and Katz famous for?
Uses and Gratifications Theory.
What is the Uses and Gratifications Theory about?
That a media consumer choose how they consumer the media they see.
What are the 4 Basic Needs of a user? (Uses and Gratifications)
Diversion, Personal Relationships, Personal Identity and Surveillance.
What is "Diversion" about?
The need to escape from everyday life in order to relax.
What is "Personal Relationships" about?
That people use the media in order to form relationships with others and be part of a social group.
What is "Personal Identity" about?
That media texts can be used to find out about ourselves by seeing parts of us reflected in others presented in the media.
What is "Surveillance" about?
That the media is used to find out about what is going on around us.
What is Tessa Perkins famous for?
What does the Stereotype Theory state?
That Stereotypes aren't always: negative; about the less powerful; can be about own social groups; false; can change over time.
What different types of sound are there? Try and name 5 or more.
(Non) Diegetic, Dialogue, Voiceover, Incidental, Ambient, Themes, Stings, Soundtrack, Parallel, Contrapuntal, (Non-)Synchronous.
What is (Non) Diegetic sound?
Sound that (does not) exist(s) within the text. (This could be voiceovers or music player over the scene.)
What is (Non-)Synchronous sound?
Sound that matches with the actions taking place in the scene. (Sound that occurs but the source of the sound cannot be seen within the scene.)
What is Contrapuntal sound?
Sound that contrasts the scene. Happy music over a violent scene.
What is Parallel sound?
Sound that complements the scene. Angry music over a violent scene.
What is Ambient sound?
The normal sounds that would go on around the focus of the scene.
When did Second-Wave Feminism occur>
Began in the early 1960's.
What was Second-Wave Feminism about?
Debates about sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights and official legal inequalities. Drew attention to marital rape and domestic violence.
When did Third-Wave Feminism occur?
Began in the early 1990's and is still going on.
What is Third-Wave Feminism about?
Making the female gender diverse. Abolishing gender role, expectations and stereotypes.
What is Judith Butler famous for?
What is the Queer Theory about?
It says that gender is fluid and shifts and changes in different contexts and different times. This means that a male isn't strictly male and can present their identity as female.
What is Galtung and Ruge famous for?
News Values Theory.
What is meant by "Negativity"? (News Values)
Bad news is always more highly rated than Good news.
What is meant by "Proximity"? (News Values)
News is rated higher in different countries depending on how close to that country it is and whether it involves that country.
What is meant by "Recency"? (News Values)
Breaking News is highly rated.
What is meant by "Continuation"? (News Values)
News is higher rated if it is likely to have a continuing impact on the reader.
What is meant by "Elite"? (News Values)
News is higher rated if it is about a powerful person or country.
What is meant by "Unexpected"? (News Values)
News is higher rated if it was unexpected by the reader.