Flashcards in Religion in Australia post-1945 Deck (38):
What is assimilation policy?
An official government policy which aimed to integrate small minority groups into the dominant cultural group. This results in the loss of culture, traditions and language of the minority group.
What is crown land?
Public land owned by the Commonwealth of Australia and managed by the Australian Government
What is dispossession?
The forced removal of Aboriginal people from their native lands
What is the dreaming?
A term for the Aboriginal spiritual beliefs about creation and existence. It includes connections to ancestor spirits, rules governing relationship between people and land, and the past, present and future
What is freehold title?
A tenure of real property where there is absolute and permanent ownership of the land
What does metatemporal mean?
Refers to a concept which incorporates the past, present and future as a complete and present reality
What is native title?
A form of land title which recognises Aboriginal people as rightful owners of their traditional land
(Native Title with capital letters refers to the legislation)
What are sacred sites?
Places that have spiritual significance for Aboriginal people as they are connection with ancestor beings from the Dreaming and are places where rituals such as initiation are carried out
What is the Stolen Generation?
The term used to refer to the Aboriginal children who were removed from their families between 1900 and 1972 by the government and church missionaries in an attempt to assimilate them into European society
What is a sunset clause?
A statutory provision under the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 which sets a time frame within which all native title claims would have to be made for them to be considered
What is the Ten Point Plan?
(AKA Native Title Amendment Act 1998) - an outline of the Governments legislative response to the Wik decision. Many argue that it was aimed at leaving native title owners with little or no power over the land
What are totems?
They represent a person as they existed in the Dreaming in the form of an animal, plant or natural phenomena. They are links between an individual/community and particular ancestor spirits
What is kinship?
kinship ties identify a complex system of belonging, relationships and responsibilities within a clan that are based on the Dreaming. Kinship is determined by family connections and a connection to the land, spirits and Dreaming
What is secularism?
A movement towards a disconnection of everyday life from religious or spiritual matters
What is denominational switching?
A transfer of followers from one Christian denomination to another
What is ecumenism?
A movement towards unity amongst Christian denominations
What is interfaith dialogue?
Formal discussion aimed towards developing greater mutual understanding between different religious traditions
What is a New Age Religion?
An umbrella term to cover a wide range of spiritual beliefs and practices aiming to foster individual fulfilment in the form of personal happiness, health and meaning in life
What is pentecostalism?
A Christian denomination that is charismatic and evangelical
What is a charismatic movement?
A Christian movement that emphasises the power of the Holy Spirit, such as speaking in tongues and healing the sick
What is evangelicalism?
It represents the need to have a conversion experience and a personal relationship with Jesus. Believers are often called 'born again Christians'
What is a fundamentalist?
A person who believes in the strict, literal interpretation of scripture in a religion
What is the revolving door syndrome?
A phenomena whereby large numbers of Pentecostals remain within the church for only a short period of time
What was the 'White Australia' policy?
A government policy (Immigration Restriction Act 1901) which aimed to exclude non-European people from migrating to Australia
When was the White Australia policy dismantled?
1973 (although it started to progressively decline after World War II)
What are the key Protestant movements?
Free Churches (Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, Salvation Army, Pentecostal churches)
The Uniting Church
When did Catholicism become the most common Christian denomination?
What was the first major world event which begun the changing religious landscape?
World War II (After 1945)
What were the first other religions to come to Australia and why?
Italian Catholics and Orthodox Christians from Eastern Europe
What was the impact of the Vietnam war (1960's-70's)?
Large influx of southeast Asian refugees
Some where Christian, Buddhist, Hindu
Refugees from Lebanon, Turkey brought Islam
Give reasons for the emergence of New Age Religions (3)
1. 1960's - strong reaction to perceived failure of established Churches to make the world a better place
2. People feel the need to explore and develop their own personal spirituality in different ways
3. People wish to have a creation-centred spirituality
What are examples of New Age Religions? (3)
1. The Family International (salvation, apocalypticism, distrust of the outside world)
3. Feng shui
What are some factors contributing to increasing secularism? (4)
1. The view that mainstream religions are outdated
2. Growing consumerism, scepticism and materialism
3. Emergence of science and technology to explain previously unexplainable phenomena
4. Various scandals within established churches
Name 3 Ecumenical movements in Australia (and dates)
1. National Council of Churches in Australia (1994)
2. NSW Ecumenical Council (1982)
3. Uniting Church in Australia (1977)
What is the NCCA?
National Council of Churches in Australia
- Works broadly on social justice issues and ecumenical charities and the sharing of resources among rural Australian churches
What is the NSWEC?
NSW Ecumenical Council
- Accommodates 11 dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church in NSW and ACT
- It allows united reflection and unity between denominations to work on social justice issues
- seeks to provide local initiatives which promote ecumenism at a grassroots level
What is the UCA?
Uniting Church in Australia
- MOST Methodists
- 2/3 Presbyterian
- ALMOST ALL Congregational
- Consolidating of resources due to falling numbers, similar beliefs