Surrounds kidney and perinephric fat
What view of the kidney is ideal for visualizing the collecting system?
The transverse view of the kidney must include...
The renal pelvis
The collecting system should appear ... on ultrasound.
If collecting system of kidney is echogenic think
Pus, stone, blood
What type(s) of hydronephrosis extends into the calyces?
Moderate and severe
What is a urinoma?
Also known as parasternal pseudocyst, an encapsulated collection of extravasated urine which can cause lipolysis of the surrounding fat with resultant encapsulation of the urine
Chronic hydronephrosis is distinguished from a more acute process by...
Thinning of the renal parenchyma
Cortical bulge on the lateral aspect of the kidney with the same echogencity of the normal parenchyma
Wedge-shaped hyperechoic defect in the anterior aspect of the kidney near the junction of the upper and middle thirds
Columns of Bertin
Prominent column of cortical tissue that protrudes into the renal sinus and can simulate a mass
Can aid in identifying distal ureteral stones
Look for dirty shadowing/ring-down in non-dependent areas
If suspect obstructive uropathy and risk for AAA....
Ultrasound is used to detect .... not cellulitis.
Drainable fluid collections
What must be visualized on an abscess in order to have a complete exam?
The base. If not seen then further evaluation required.
What sonographic findings are consistent with abscess?
Swirling of internal contents and absence of color flow
Vitreous hemorrhage on ultrasound
Thin echogenic band that floats freely with eye movement
Retinal detachment on ultrasound
Remains attached posteriorly with eye meovement. High echogenicity. Visible with low gain, low mobility, attached to optic disc
Posterior vitreous detachment
May or may not be attached to optic disc, lower echogenicity, disappears with low gain, high mobility
Choroid also detachment on ultrasound
Scalloped appearance, shallow can be treated non-op vs. oppositional treated operatively
Optic sheath nerve diameter normal diameter
Up to 5 mm as measured 3 mm posterior to the globe
Scanning tendons at any angle other than perpendicular will result in loss of the normal hyperechoic appearance
What fills in the tendon gap in a complete tear?
Hemorrhage or Kager's fat pad
Presence of intact ... at the medial aspect of the Achilles' tendon may simulate intact Achilles' tendon
What vessels are visualized on DVT scans?
Common femoral vein before and after take off of greater saphenous, superficial femoral vein, deep femoral vein, and popliteal until trifurcation. Deep femoral vein will be lost but follow the superficial femoral vein. Make sure there is no duplication.
If vein is smaller than artery in femoral system, what should you suspect?
Femoral vein duplication
The superficial femoral vein is also called...
Anechoic structure with curve and taper found in popliteal fossa