Renal Structure and Function Review Flashcards Preview

Renal, Urinary and Bladder > Renal Structure and Function Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Structure and Function Review Deck (11):
1

What is the nephron?

Structural and functional unit f the kidney, ~1million/kidney
Comprised of glomerulus and tubule

2

What are the major functions of the kidneys?

1. Waste excretion
2. Electrolyte balance
3. Hormone synthesis
4. BP regulation
5. Glucose homeostasis

3

What hormones are synthesised in the kidneys?

-EPO production (cortex)
-Vit D activation
-Renin production (JG apparatus)

4

What are mesangial cells?

Structural cells that support the vascular tree. Contractile and produce vasoactive substances to help control blood flow

5

What are the cells of the glomerulus?

1. Mesanigal cells
2.Capillary endothelial cells
3. Visceral epithelium (podocytes)
4. Parietal epithelium

6

What are capillary endothelial cells?

One of the cells of the glomerular filtration barrier; help form the plasma filtration apparatus due to their sinusoidal nature and glycocalcyx.

7

What are the podocytes?

Visceral epithelium; one of the cells of the glomerular filtration barrier and help form plasma filtration apparatus due to their interdigitated foot process that form slit diaphragms.

8

What is the parietal epithelium?

Lines the interior of Bowman's capsule and contains a podocyte progenitor population

9

Explain effect of PGs, NSAIDs, ACEi and ANGII on the renal arterioles.

AFFERENT:
-PG dilate
-NSAIDs constrict
EFFERENt
-ACEi dilate
-AngII constricts

10

What is normal urine output?

>0.5mg/kg/h

11

What are the two mechanisms of auto regulation?

i) Myogenic: vasoactive factors released in response to changes in perfusion pressure
ii) Tubuloglomerular feedback: changes in [Na+] delivery to macula densa lead to afferent arteriolar tone