Renewable Energy in Canada & Biomass Flashcards Preview

ISCI 2002 > Renewable Energy in Canada & Biomass > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renewable Energy in Canada & Biomass Deck (12):
1

Energy, work, and power

Energy: capacity of a body or system to do work (J/Cal)

Work: net transfer of energy from force being applied over a distance (J)

Power: rate of work (W)

2

Forms of energy

1) Electromagnetic photons
2) Kinetic motion: mechanical or thermal
3) Potential stored: gravitational, chemical, electrical, compressed gases, nuclear fission and fusion

3

Laws of thermodynamics

1) Conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, just transformed
2) Entropy always increases while quality of energy decreases

4

Biomass, advantages and disadvantages

Pulp and paper industries burn biomass (pulp liquor, landfill) to generate heat for kilns and electricity

Advantages:
1) Renewable when stewarded
2) Less waste sent to landfills
3) Does not increase CO2, can decrease CH4 if less natural gas is used

Disadvantages:
1) Energy out > energy in
2) High use of fertilizer/pesticides
3) Harm to wildlife/soil erosion
4) Deprive soil nutrients
5) Toxic emissions
6) Cost: subsidize food for fuel?

5

World land use

37% forest and grass land
30.2% rock, ice, tundra, desert
32% agriculture
0.8% urban/developed

6

What do forests do? How do we manage forests?

1) Carbon sinks take in CO2 and release O2
2) Roots hold soil and water
3) Habitat
4) Control local temperature
5) Provide a renewable industry

Management: increase yield while controlling fires, pests, and disease
1) Decreased diversity = increased pests/disease
2) Some practices are more sustainable than others (selective cutting)
3) Clear cutting is most effective
4) Homogenous replanting
5) Pesticide use

7

Tailings dams

Used to collect water from the tar sands, leading to PAHs in the atmosphere and metal accumulation in regional soils and water systems

8

Solar energy

Can be passive or active and uses photovoltaics to absorb, hold, or reflect heat from the sun.
Problems: requires the use of semiconductors to get energy flowing, cost, environmental impact of mining/disposal

9

3 main reasons for deforestation

1) Subsistence farming (60%)
2) Commercial logging (20%)
3) Cattle ranching (12%)

10

Agriculture major crops, 2 reasons for increased grain yield, and necessity of fertilizer

Major crops: wheat, corn, rice, potatoes, barley, sugar cane, soybean, oats, rye, peanuts

2 reasons for increased grain yield:
1) Green revolution developed hardy, fast-growing, high yield, easily harvested species through cross-breeding
2) GMOs made better crops using technology, but this was hard on poorer nations who fell behind and requires high use of fossil fuels and fertilizers

Necessity of fertilizers: plants produce all the carbs, proteins, and fats they require from CO2 absorbed using solar energy, but still require nutrients from the soil to grow

11

Why are World Grain Carry Over Stocks declining even though there is a higher yield?

Increased meat consumption as grain is used to feed animals

12

Antibiotics in livestock and solutions

1) Cell adapts permeability so that the drug can't enter
2) Binding: binding site is gone so drug can't enter
3) Modify the drug to be harmless
4) Active transport of drug molecules out of the cell is altered so drug can only affect 1 cell
5) The cell changes the pathway/enzyme used to carry out a process and renders the drug harmless

Solutions:
1) GMOs
2) Crop rotation and other methods
3) Tree planitng
4) Return to smaller farms
5) Timely fertilizer applications