Repro 6 STIs and PID Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Repro 6 STIs and PID Deck (105):
1

Why is the term STI instead of STD used?

STI - symptomatic and asymtomatic infection - still potential problems and potential to spread it
STD - symptomatic infection only

2

Where is the national data for STIs collected from?

GUM clinics - Gentio Urinary Medicine, which notify STDs centrally

3

Why is there a gradual and sustained increase in STI prevalence from 1995 to 99?

Increased transmission
Acceptability of GUM services
Greater public awareness
Development in diagnostic methods

Behavioural, socio-economic, healthcare provision and biological factors all contribute

4

What is the suspected reason for the fall in STI diagnosis prior to 95?

Thought to reflect changes in behaviour in response to the HIV epidemic

5

Why is data from GUM clinics an underestimation of the true incidence of STIs?

Patients may be seen in other settings e.g. GP or family planning clinics
Many infections are asymptomatic and only approx 10% of cases attend GUM

6

Who are the at risk groups in society of contracting STIs?

Young people
Ethnic minority (stigma)
Poverty/social exclusion
Low socio-economic status
Poorly educated
Unemployed
Teenage mothers (at risk behaviour)

7

What factors contribute to the risk of contracting STIs?

Age at first intercourse
Total number of sexual partners
Frequency of change of partners
Concurrent partners
Sexual orientation (with other factors)
Practice of unsafe sex
Lack of skills ad confidence to negotiate safe sex

8

What STIs might cause genital ulcers?

HSV (herpes simplex virus)
Syphilis
Chanchroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

9

What STIs might cause vesicles of bullae?

HSV

10

When might an STI cause genital papules? Give some examples.

Transient manifestation of STIs - condylomata acuminata (anogenital warts), umbilicated lesions of Molluscum contagiosum virus

11

What should aspects of genital ulcers should be assessed?

Number
Size
Tenderness
Base
Edges

12

What are the various types of urethritis and what might cause them?

Gonococcal urethritis
NGU (nongonococcal urethritis) - chlamidia trachomatis, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, trichomonas HSV
Post-gonococcal urethritis
Non-specific urethritis
Non-infectious urethritis

13

What is vulvovaginitis and what might cause it?

Vaginal infection - candidias, trichomoniasis, staphylococcal, foreign body, HSV

14

What might cause cervicitis?

C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, HSV, HPV

15

What is bartholinitis and what might cause it?

Inflammation of one or both of the bartholin glands. Caused by polymicrobial infections with endogenous flora or rarely STIs

16

What are the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?

Discharge
Odour
Itch
Dyspareunia
Soreness

17

How is bacterial vaginosis diagnosed?

Vaginal pH >4.5
Pungent odour with KOH (whiff test)
Presence of clue cells on a wet mount lacking many PNMs

18

What is the cause of bacterial vaginalis?

Thought to be the result of a synergistic infection involving the overgrowth of normal flora including gardnerella vaginalis

19

What are the potential pregnancy related causes of infections of the female pelvis?

Chorioamnionitis
Post-partum
Endometriosis
Episiotomy infections
Peurperal ovarian vein thrombophlebitis
Osteomyelitis pubis

20

What are the different types of prostatitis?

Acute bacterial
Chronic bacterial
Chronic pelvic pain syndrome

21

What are the different types of epididymitis?

Non-specific bacterial
Sexually transmitted

22

What are the causes of orhchitis?

(inflammation of the testes)
Viral (mumps, coxsackie B)
Pyogenic bacterial

23

Why do chlamydia trachomatis not grow on routine lab media?

They are obligate intracellular bacteria

24

What is the infective form of chlamydia trachomatis?

Elementary body which develops within the host cell into the reticulate body

25

What does the reticulate body of chlamydia trachomatis do?

Replicates eventually reverting back to elementary bodies which leave the cell to infect other cells

26

Where in the female reproductive tract does chlamydia replicate?

Epithelium of the cervix and urethra

27

What are the consequences of an infection of C. trachomatis?

An ascending infection with involvement of the upper genital tract occurs and can result in clinical or subclinical PID presenting as endometritis or salpingitis. Perihepatitis is a rare complication (more likely from gonorrhoea)

28

What results from a cervical infection of C. trachomatis?

The majority of infections are symptomatic but it is an important cause of muopurulent cervicitis

29

What are the manifestations of a urethral infection of chlamydia?

Acute urethral syndrome - dysuria and frequency (most common in young sexually active women)

30

What are the common symptoms of chlamydia infection in males?

Urethritis
Prostatitis
Proctitis

31

What ar epotential complication of chlamydia infection in males?

Acute epididymitis

32

What is Reiters syndrome?

Urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis are the classical triad f clinical manifestations
Predominantly occurs in male patients affected with chlamydia

33

Where other than the genital tract may there be a manifestation of chlamydia?

Eye - ocular infections

34

What is the cause of chlamydia in neonates?

Cervical infection in pregnant women

35

What are the manifestations and complications of chlamydia in neonates?

Neonatal conjunctivitis
Neonatal pneumonia

36

How are specimen collected from males to test for chlamydia?

Urethral swab or first catch urine

37

How are specimen collected from females to test for chlamydia?

Endocervical swab. It is important that any pus is first removed from the cervix and that good quality cellular material is obtained

38

What are the pros and cons for urine samples as a specimen collection for chlamydia testing?

Less sensitive than swabs
Patients may provide their own samples whereas swabs are time consuming and requires a trained member of staff to take the specimen and is less acceptable to the patient

39

How are specimens collected from neonates to test for chlamydia?

Eye swab - remove pus, invert eyelid and scrape conjunctiva surface to obtain cellular material
For pneumonia, serology is useful. A differential on a WCC may show eosinophilia

40

How are diagnoses of chlamydia made?

Used to employ tissue culture but this is expensive and requires highly specialised labs
Antigen detection (immunofluorescence)
Enzyme Immunoassays (EIA)
Molecular methods (PCR)
Nucleic acid amplification from first void urine

41

Describe the method of antigen detection in diagnosing chlamydia.

Specimens may be fixed to a slide and stained with a monoclonal antibody that is tagged with fluorescein
Slides are examined under a UV microscope

42

What are the drawbacks and advantages to antigen detection in diagnosing chlamydia?

Results are subject to observer error and the method is time consuming (only suitable for small number of specimens)
Quality of specimen can be assessed

43

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of EIA in assessing specimens for chlamydia.

Allow a large number of specimens to be processed relatively easily
Relatively cheap
Comercial kits may vary in sensitivity and specificity

44

What are the advantages and disadvantages to molecular methods use in diagnosing chlamydia?

High sensitivity and specificity
Clinical specimens may contain inhibitors that will interfere with the assay
Commercial kits may yield significant false positives and negatives

45

What is the mainstay treatment for chlamydia?

Macrolides (erythromycin/clarithromycin/azithromycin)
Tetracyclines (doxycycline
(Typically used for atypical resp infection)

46

Why are systemic antibiotics used in the treatment of chlamydia?

Conjunctivitis is part of a more widespread infection

47

Why are beta lactam antibiotics not used in the treatment of chlamydia?

Chlamydia trachomatis contain relatively little peptidoglycan

48

Classify the gonorrhoea bacteria.

Neisseriaceae
Gram-negative diplococci that only grow on enriched media

49

Where do gonococcal infections generally occur in the female?

Cervix
Urethra

50

What are the clinical manifestations of gonococcal infection?

Acute cervicitis
Vaginal discharge
Urethral syndrome where the urethra is infected (male and female)

51

What are the potential complications of gonococcal infection?

PID (occasionally with tubo-ovarian abscess)
Bartholins abscess
Disseminated gonococcal infection (male and female)
Epididymitis
Proctitis
Pharyngitis
Prostatitis

52

What is a disseminated gonococcal infection?

Bacteraemia. A rare complication that affects women more than men
Common symptoms: pain on joints (lesions), tensynovitis and rash

53

How should specimens for testing of gonorrhoea be taken?

Taken and plated directly on to media at the bedside as it is a fragile organism and does not survive transportation well

54

Where are specimen collected from in males and females to test for gonorrhoea?

Female - endocervical, urethral, rectal or pharyngeal swab
Male - Urethral, rectal and pharyngeal swabs

Smear and culture

55

How are gonococcal infections diagnosed in the lab?

Gram stain - gram-negative diplococci
Culture is more sensitive than microscopy - biochemical tests must be done to confirm potential neisseria on a culture

56

Why is sensitivity testing important for gonococcal infections?

Antibiotic resistance patterns are valuable in guiding future management guidelines

57

What is the treatment for a gonococcal infection?

Neisseria gonorrhoea may vary in its sensitivity. Initial therapy is usually guided by severity of symptoms an local knowledge of sensitivity patterns. Penicillin resistance common

Ceftriaxone (IM) is now mainstay treatment. Used to be ciprofoxacin but resistance built

58

What is the most commonly diagnosed STI?

Genital warts caused by HPV

59

How many types of HPV are there?

Over 100

60

Do all individuals infected with HPV develop warts?

No

61

What are the risks carried with HPV?

Difficult to treat
Certain high risk types are associated with cervical carcinoma (HPV 16 and 18)

62

What are the methods of HPV screening?

Cervical pap smear cytology
Colposcopy and acetowhite test
Cervical swab - HPV hybrid capture -> high/intermediate risk of differentiation

63

What are the symptoms of HPV?

Benign
Painless
Verucous epithelia or mucosal outgrowths

64

How is HPV diagnosed?

Clinical biopsy + genome analysis
Hybrid capture

65

What is the treatment for HPV?

No treatment - spontaneous resolution
topical podophyllin
Cryotherapy
Intralesional interferon
Imiquimod
Surgery

66

Why should patients presenting with one STI be screened for others, including BBV?

Multiple infections are common - at risk behaviour, identical transmission mode, long-term asymptomatic and chlamydia is common

67

What type of microorganism is Trichomonas vaginalis?

Flagellated protozoan

68

What are the clinical presentations of Trichomonas vaginalis?

Trichomonas vaginitis
Thin, frothy, offensive discharge
Irritation
Dysuria
Vaginal inflammation

69

How is a diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis made?

Vaginal wet preparation +/- culture enhancement

70

WHat is the treatment of trichomonas vaginalis?

Metronidazole (active against anaerobes and protozoa)

71

What is the name of the bacterium causing syphilis?

Treponema pallidum

72

How is the disease of syphilis described?

Multi-stage disease - progressive, manifests in different ways
'The great pretender'

73

Describe the stages of syphilis.

1. Indurated painless ulcer (chancre)
2. 6-8 weeks later: fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, mucosal lesions
(can be latent and symptom free for years)
3. Chronic granulomatous lesions
4. CVS and CNS pathology

74

How is syphilis diagnosed?

Serology, dark field microscopy

75

What is the treatment of syphilis?

Penicillin and 'test of cure' follow up

76

What are the 2 types of HSV?

1. Oral
2. Genital

Exposure to type 1 provides some immunity to type 2

77

What are the clinical presentations of type 2 HSV?

Extensive, painful genital ulceration
Dysuria
Inguinal lymphadenopathy
Fever
Urinary retention common in women

Recurrent = asymptomatic -> moderate

78

How is herpes diagnosed?

Smear and swab (viral culture) of vesicle fluid and/or ulcer base

79

How is HSV treated?

Primary and severe with aciclovir (only active in infected cells - activated by virus)
Prophylactic aciclovir
May need hospitalised if severe primary disease

80

What is the most common cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis?

Candida albicans - normal flora of the GI and genital tracts

81

What are risk factors for the development of vulvovaginal candidiasis?

Antibiotics
Oral contraceptives
Pregnancy
Obesity
Steroids
Diabetes

82

What are the clinical presentations of vulvovaginal candidiasis?

Profuse, whites, curd like discharge
Vaginal itch
Discomfort
Erythema

83

How is a diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis made?

High vaginal smear and culture

84

What is the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis?

Topical azoles or nystatin
Oral fluconazole

85

What causes bacterial vaginosis?

perturbed normal flora - garderella, anaerobes, mycoplasmas

86

How is bacterial vaginosis treated?

Metronidazole

87

What treatment is generally given when a diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoea has been made?

Ceftriaxone IM + doxycycline for 7 days for possible chlamydial infection or azithromycin if pregnant of unlikely to be complient

88

What is Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome?

Right upper quadrant pain from perihepatitis (inflammation of the liver capsule or diaphragm) following the transabdominal spread from PID. Adhesions form between the liver and abdominal wall or diaphragm, classically called violin strings

89

What causes Fits-Hugh-Curtis syndrome?

Most commonly, chlamydia, less commonly, gonorrhoea

90

What advice should patients with STIs be given?

Abstinence during treatment
Tell recent sexual partners
Advice to decrease STI risks
Return visit to test for cure
Sexual health education

91

How does the illness iceberg relate to STIs?

Many asymptomatic unknown cases - higher prevalence than known

92

What conditions in the vagina will promote growth of candida?

High pH
Antibiotics
Warmth and humidity
OC and pregnancy
High glucose
Steroid therapy
Menstrual cycle association

93

Why does the OC increase risk of development of thrush?

High oestrogen levels promote overgrowth of the yeast

94

What is PID?

Infection ascending from the endocervix, causing endometritis, salpingitis, parmetritis, oophoritis, tubo-ovairan abscess and/or pelvic peritonitis

95

Who gets PID?

Sexually active women
High incidence in urban areas
Peak incidence 20 per 1000
Highest incidence in 20-24yr olds

96

What microorganisms can cause PID?

Gonorrhoea (14%)
Chlamydia
Garderella, mycoplasma and anaerobes also implicated

97

What are the chances of concurrent infection?

40%

98

What are the risk factors for PID?

Sexual behaviour
Type of contraception used - IUCD carries risk of infection for 1st week of insertion (foreign body), COCP considered protective
Alcohol/drug use
Cigarette smoking

99

What are the clinical features of PID?

Pyrexia (>38 degrees)
Pain
Abnormal vaginal discharge
Abnormal vaginal bleeding

100

What pain is associated with PID?

Bilateral lower abdominal tenderness
Adnexal tenderness
Tenderness on cervical excitation
Deep dyspareunia

101

What investigations should be carried out for PID?

Ultrasound, laproscopy, endocervical swabs, swabs from peritoneum if laproscopy done

*Positive swabs confirm but negative do not exclude

102

How would you manage a patient with PID?

analgesia, antibiotics/antimicrobial against specific organisms and broad spectrum antibiotics with good anaerobic coverage
advice:
bed rest. If hospitalised adopt semi fowler position to drain pus out of pelvis

103

What are the potential complications of PID?

Ectopic pregnancy
Infertility
Chronic pelvic pain
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

104

How can patients prevent PID?

Safe sex - barrier contraception
STI screening and partner
Early STI treatment
Avoid promiscuity

105

What are the differentials for PID?

Gynae - ectopic pregnancy, endometritis, complications of ovarian cyst, torsion
GI - IBSm acute appendicitis, IBD
Renal - UTI, cystitis, bladder stones
Other - functional pain of unknown physical origin