Reproduction Flashcards Preview

EQUINE > Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (24):
1

What is the average gestation length in mares?

342 days

2

When to mammary changes occur in the pregnant mare?

3-6 weeks postpartum w/ major changes in last 2 weeks

3

Discuss the different measures available to detect foaling.

Measure milk calcium (>10mmol/L @ term)
Mare wears monitor that sets off alarm if recumbent for long periods
In-stable cameras
Suture magnetic device to vulva

4

What are the causes of dystocia in the mare?

Primary uterine inertia- due to voluntary suppression because of disturbance
Secondary uterine inertia- due to foal malpresentation
Failed abdo expulsive effort
Obstruction of birth canal

5

List the causes of abortion in the mare.

Equine viral arteritis
Equine viral rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1)
Bacterial infec
Fungal infec
Twinning
Placental insufficiency e.g. foal in uterine body, scarring
Umbilical cord defects e.g. torsion

6

What are the clinical signs of EHV-1 infection in the pregnant mare?

5M - end of term abortion OR weak viraemic foals that die soon after

7

What are the clinical signs of equine viral arteritis in the pregnant mare?

Systemic illness e.g. fever, lethargy, depression, abortion 7-10 days later

8

List the common postpartum complications.

Retained placenta- EMERGENCY
Severe pain due to contractions
Uterine artery rupture
Retrovaginal fistula/laceration

9

How is retained placenta treated?

If retained >3hrs, oxytocin IV/IM every 15 minutes
If prolonged retention >8hrs, anti-inflams, broad-spec a/bs, exercise, oxytocin OR distend repro tract w/ 10-12L of iodine and sew shut

10

Why is a retained placenta an emergency?

Sequelae = laminitis, endometritis, TOXAEMIA

11

What are the common organisms found on the endometrium?

Beta-haemolytic streps
E.coli
Other enterobacter

12

What are the clinical signs of granulosa cell tumours in horses?

Behavioural changes- including stallion-like behaviour
Ceased cycling

13

How can granulosa cell tumours be diagnosed in horses?

Palpate/US abnormally enlarged ovary (>10cm) with atropied contralateral ovary
Anti-mullerian hormone test
Histology of removed ovary

14

List reasons why a mare may fail to become pregnant.

Endometrial transluminal adhesions
Endometrial cysts
Endometrosis
Endometritis- due to contagious equine metritis, persistent mating-induced endometritis or chronic infection

15

List the causes of endometritis.

Contagious equine metritis (CEM)
Persistent mating-induced endometritis
Chronic infection

16

What is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis?

Taylorella equigenitalis

17

What are the clinical signs of contagious equine metritis (CEM)?

Profuse watery mucopurulent discharge and extensive endometritis and necrosis.

18

How is CEM transmitted?

Venereal/fomites
Persists in the clitoral sinus

19

What degree of testicular torsion affects fertility?

>270 degrees- stops bloodflow. 180 = developmental, no effect on fertility

20

How is cryptorchidism diagnosed?

3yo: oestrone sulphate assay

21

What causes paraphimosis?

Phenothiazine/other sedative use
Preputial trauma
Chronic grass sickness
Botulism

22

When is the TB breeding season?

15th Feb - 1st July (starts before mares naturally cycle)

23

What signs are used to detect ovulation in a mare?

Follicle development: 45-50mm, round and turgid
Endometrial oedema
Cervical tone

24

When should mares be checked for twinning?

D30