Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (24):
What is the average gestation length in mares?
When to mammary changes occur in the pregnant mare?
3-6 weeks postpartum w/ major changes in last 2 weeks
Discuss the different measures available to detect foaling.
Measure milk calcium (>10mmol/L @ term)
Mare wears monitor that sets off alarm if recumbent for long periods
Suture magnetic device to vulva
What are the causes of dystocia in the mare?
Primary uterine inertia- due to voluntary suppression because of disturbance
Secondary uterine inertia- due to foal malpresentation
Failed abdo expulsive effort
Obstruction of birth canal
List the causes of abortion in the mare.
Equine viral arteritis
Equine viral rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1)
Placental insufficiency e.g. foal in uterine body, scarring
Umbilical cord defects e.g. torsion
What are the clinical signs of EHV-1 infection in the pregnant mare?
5M - end of term abortion OR weak viraemic foals that die soon after
What are the clinical signs of equine viral arteritis in the pregnant mare?
Systemic illness e.g. fever, lethargy, depression, abortion 7-10 days later
List the common postpartum complications.
Retained placenta- EMERGENCY
Severe pain due to contractions
Uterine artery rupture
How is retained placenta treated?
If retained >3hrs, oxytocin IV/IM every 15 minutes
If prolonged retention >8hrs, anti-inflams, broad-spec a/bs, exercise, oxytocin OR distend repro tract w/ 10-12L of iodine and sew shut
Why is a retained placenta an emergency?
Sequelae = laminitis, endometritis, TOXAEMIA
What are the common organisms found on the endometrium?
What are the clinical signs of granulosa cell tumours in horses?
Behavioural changes- including stallion-like behaviour
How can granulosa cell tumours be diagnosed in horses?
Palpate/US abnormally enlarged ovary (>10cm) with atropied contralateral ovary
Anti-mullerian hormone test
Histology of removed ovary
List reasons why a mare may fail to become pregnant.
Endometrial transluminal adhesions
Endometritis- due to contagious equine metritis, persistent mating-induced endometritis or chronic infection
List the causes of endometritis.
Contagious equine metritis (CEM)
Persistent mating-induced endometritis
What is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis?
What are the clinical signs of contagious equine metritis (CEM)?
Profuse watery mucopurulent discharge and extensive endometritis and necrosis.
How is CEM transmitted?
Persists in the clitoral sinus
What degree of testicular torsion affects fertility?
>270 degrees- stops bloodflow. 180 = developmental, no effect on fertility
How is cryptorchidism diagnosed?
3yo: oestrone sulphate assay
What causes paraphimosis?
Phenothiazine/other sedative use
Chronic grass sickness
When is the TB breeding season?
15th Feb - 1st July (starts before mares naturally cycle)
What signs are used to detect ovulation in a mare?
Follicle development: 45-50mm, round and turgid