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Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (44):
1

-sonic hedgehog gene involved in patterning along _________ axis and CNS development
-mutations can cause __________

anterposterior

holoprosencephaly

2

-fibroblast growth factor produced at ___________ providing for lengthening of limbs
-limb _______ axis

apical ectodermal ridge

proximal-distal

3

Wnt-7 gene necessary for proper organization along _______ axis

dorsal ventral

4

Homeobox genes (hox) involved in segmental organization of embryo in ________ direction, where mutations lead to __________

anteroposterior (craniocaudal)

appendages in wrong locations (abnormal digits/toes)

5

hCG secretion begins around the time of implantation of the blastocyst, at day ____

6

6

at week 2, the bilaminar disc consists of the _____ blast and _____ blast

epiblast, hypoblast

7

at week 3, gastrulation forms the _______ embryonic disc, cells from _______ invaginate to form the primitive streak which becomes the endoderm/mesoderm/ectoderm, and overlying _______ becomes the neural plate

trilaminar

epiblast

ectoderm

8

at weeks 3-8, the _________ is formed by neuroectoderm and closes by week 4, fetus extremely susceptible to ________

neural tube

teratogens

9

the heart begins to beat at week ______, and upper and lower limb buds start to form

4

10

at week _____, genitalia have male and female characteristics

10

11

-external/outer layer
-epidermis, adenohypophysis (from Rathke pouch), lens of eye, epithelial linings of oral cavity, sensory organs of ear, olfactory epithelium, anal canal below pectinate line, parotid, sweat, and mammary glands derived from?

surface ectoderm

12

benign Rathke pouch tumor with cholesterol crystals, calicfications

craniopharyngioma

13

-brain, retina, spinal cord derived from?

neural tube

14

-PNS and non-neural structures nearby
-melanocytes, myenteric plexus, odontoblasts, endocardial cushions, laryngeal cartilage, C cells of thyroid, PNS, adrenal medulla, Schwanna cells, pia and arachnoid, bones of skull

neural crest

15

-middle layer
-muscle, bone, CT, serous linings of body cavities, SPLEEN, cardiovascular structures, wall of gut tube, upper vagina, kidneys, adrenal cortex, dermis, testis, ovaries

mesoderm

16

notochord derived from ________, and influences ectoderm to form neuroectoderm, its only derivative is the ________ of the intervertebral disc

mesoderm

nucleus pulposus

17

mesodermal defects?

VACTERL:
-vertebral
-anal atresia
-cardiac
-tracheoesophageal fistula
-renal defects
-limb defects (bone and muscle)

18

-enternal layer
-gut tube epithelium, urethra and lower vagina, luminal epithelial derivatives

endoderm

19

taratogen: ACE inhibitor cause ________ due to ________ in the 2nd/3rd timester

renal damage

oligohydramnios

20

teratogen - alkylating agents cause absence of _______

digits

21

teratogen - aminoglycosides cause?

ototoxicity

22

teratogen - antiepileptic drugs cause _______, high dose folate supplementation recommended, most common drugs are ______

neural tube defects

valproate, carbamezipine, phenytoin, phenobarbitol

23

ditheylstilbestrol causes vaginal __________, and congenital _______ anomalies

clear cell adenocarcinoma

Mullerian

24

teratogen - isoretinoin requires mandatory ________

contraception

25

teratogen - lithium causes _______ anomaly, with displacement of the ______ valve

Ebstein

tricuspid

26

teratogen - methimazole cause aplsia _________, with absence of epidermis on the scalp

cutis congenita

27

teratogen - thalidomide causes ______

limb defects

28

teratogen - warfarin caused ______ deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion

bone

29

teratogen - cocaine causes ________, leading to low birth weight, preterm birth, IUGR, placental abruption

vasoconstriction

30

teratogen - methylmercury causes ________, highest in swordifsh, mackeral

neurotoxicity

31

______ excess puts baby at risk for spontanous abortion and birth defects

vitamin A

32

3rd aortic arch forms the _______ arteries

carotid

33

4th aortic arch form the _______ on left and _______ on right

aortic arch
right subclavian artery

34

6th aortic arch forms part of _______ arteries and the ________

pulmonary

ductus arteriosus

35

-trigeminal nerve
-maxilla mandible
-which branchial arch?

1st

36

-VII, facial nerve
-hyoid (stapes, styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid)

2nd arch

37

-CNIX glossopharyngeal
-hyoid structure (stylopharyngeus)

2rd arch

38

-vagus nerve CNX
-larynx structures

4-6 arches

39

failure of fusion of maxillary and merged medial nasal processes (formation of primary palate)

cleft lip

40

failure of fusion of the two lateral palatine shelves or failure of fusion of lateral palatine shelves with nasal septum and/or median palatine shelf

cleft palate

41

-branchial clefts derived from ______
-branchial arches derived frm ______
-branchial pouches derived from _____

cleft - ectoderm

arches - mesoderm

-pouches - endoderm

42

1st branchial cleft develops into?

external auditory meatus

43

branchial cleft cyst within lateral neck, anterior to sternoclediomastoid muscle, may form fistula

persistent cervical sinus

44

-chromosome 22q11 deletion
-aberrant development of 3rd and 4th pouches
-T cell deficiency, hypocalcemia, cardiac defects

DiGeorge syndrome