Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (32):
What is the role of sex hormones?
1. Development and function of the reproductive organs
2. Sexual behaviour and drives
3. Growth and development of many other organs and tissue
Describe the deliver of sperm to the exterior theories the duct system.
2. Ductus deferens
3. Ejaculatory duct
Describe the temperature of the scrotum, and how temperature is controlled.
- 3 degrees cooler than core body temperature
- controlled by 2 sets of muscles:
Dartos muscle- smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin
Cremaster muscles- bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes
What is the function of the testes?
- the production of sperm
- the secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone.
What are in the seminiferous tubules and their functions?
1. Spermatocytes- primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis to form secondary.
Division of chromosomes. 2 months to mature.
mechanical support and protection for developing germ cells.
Secrete inhibin- influences rate often maturation and release of spermatozoa.
3. Interstitial (Leydig)- cells that lie outside semiferous tubules that produce testosterone
Explain the regulation control of male hormone levels
1. Hypothalamus control- secrete Gnrh (gonadotropic releasing)
2. Stimulates the anterior pituitary
3. Releases FSH and LH.
FSH- initiates and promotes spermtogenesis in semiferous tubules
LH- stimulates interstitial cells of Leydig to produce and release testosterone
1. Spermatogonium- undergoes MITOTIC division, produces daughter cells, A and B.
2. Daughter cell B grows, becomes primary spermatocyte, undo goes MEIOSIS 1, to produce secondary spermatocytes.
3. Secondary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS II, to produce early spermatids
4. Spermatogenesis, matures spermatids from early to late to spermatozoa.
What are the primary sex organs and their function and accessory organs?
-Testes and ovaries-produce sex cells and secrete steroid sex hormones.
- ducts, gland, external genitalia.
How many chromosomes present in the head of a sperm cell?
What does testosterone stimulate?
-male pattern of development
- contributes to male sexual behaviour
- stimulates muscle and bone synthesis
What is the abdominal bending of the uterus posteriorly called?
Which hormones does the corpus luteum secrete?
What epithelium lines the Fallopian tubes?
What is a vasectomy?
Where both the vas deferens are ligated.
Name the 2 ligaments that suspend the uterus?
Broad ligament and round ligament
Name the 3 histology all layers of the uterus?
Perimetrium- serous layer (visceral peritoneum)
myometrium- interlacing layers of smooth muscle
endometrium- mucosal lining
What 2 anterior Pituitary hormones regulate changes in uterus and ovaries
FSH and LH
What muscles form the floor of the pelvis?
Pelvic floor muscles/ pelvic diaphragm
Ovarian follicles produce a lot of which hormone?
What does the tre stage of labour involve?
Delivering the placenta
What is the fertilisation of 2 oocytes by different sperms concurrently?
How many days after fertilisation does the zygote implant into the endometrium?
What is the test that checks the presence of genetic disorders such as Down syndrome and haemophiliacs?
After fertilization, what is the zygote called for the next 2 months?
What does the term 'show' refer to?
Discharge of cervical mucous plug
What is an IUD?
A copper T intrauterine device that prevents the attachment of a fertilised ovum to the endometrium
What is a breech presentation?
When foetus is born feet first
What is Wharton's jelly?
A thick jelly like substance in the umbilical cord that prevents it from kinking.
What is amenorrhea?
Total absence of menstruation
What is the hormone that is present to indicate pregnancy?
The ability of a male to ejaculate is to due which muscle?
The action of the ischiocavernosus muscle