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Human Biology > Reproductive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (32):
1

What is the role of sex hormones?

1. Development and function of the reproductive organs
2. Sexual behaviour and drives
3. Growth and development of many other organs and tissue

2

Describe the deliver of sperm to the exterior theories the duct system.

1. Epididymis
2. Ductus deferens
3. Ejaculatory duct
4. Urethra

3

Describe the temperature of the scrotum, and how temperature is controlled.

- 3 degrees cooler than core body temperature
- controlled by 2 sets of muscles:
Dartos muscle- smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin
Cremaster muscles- bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes

4

What is the function of the testes?

- the production of sperm
- the secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone.

5

What are in the seminiferous tubules and their functions?

1. Spermatocytes- primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis to form secondary.
Division of chromosomes. 2 months to mature.
2.sertoli cells-
mechanical support and protection for developing germ cells.
Secrete inhibin- influences rate often maturation and release of spermatozoa.
3. Interstitial (Leydig)- cells that lie outside semiferous tubules that produce testosterone

6

Explain the regulation control of male hormone levels

1. Hypothalamus control- secrete Gnrh (gonadotropic releasing)
2. Stimulates the anterior pituitary
3. Releases FSH and LH.
FSH- initiates and promotes spermtogenesis in semiferous tubules
LH- stimulates interstitial cells of Leydig to produce and release testosterone

7

Describe spermatogenesis

1. Spermatogonium- undergoes MITOTIC division, produces daughter cells, A and B.
2. Daughter cell B grows, becomes primary spermatocyte, undo goes MEIOSIS 1, to produce secondary spermatocytes.
3. Secondary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS II, to produce early spermatids
4. Spermatogenesis, matures spermatids from early to late to spermatozoa.

8

What are the primary sex organs and their function and accessory organs?

-Testes and ovaries-produce sex cells and secrete steroid sex hormones.
- ducts, gland, external genitalia.

9

How many chromosomes present in the head of a sperm cell?

23

10

What does testosterone stimulate?

-male pattern of development
- contributes to male sexual behaviour
-spermatogenesis
- stimulates muscle and bone synthesis

11

What is the abdominal bending of the uterus posteriorly called?

Retroflexion

12

Which hormones does the corpus luteum secrete?

Progesterone

13

What epithelium lines the Fallopian tubes?

Ciliated columnar

14

What is a vasectomy?

Where both the vas deferens are ligated.

15

Name the 2 ligaments that suspend the uterus?

Broad ligament and round ligament

16

Name the 3 histology all layers of the uterus?

Perimetrium- serous layer (visceral peritoneum)
myometrium- interlacing layers of smooth muscle
endometrium- mucosal lining

17

What 2 anterior Pituitary hormones regulate changes in uterus and ovaries

FSH and LH

18

What muscles form the floor of the pelvis?

Pelvic floor muscles/ pelvic diaphragm

19

Ovarian follicles produce a lot of which hormone?

Oestrogen

20

What does the tre stage of labour involve?

Delivering the placenta

21

What is the fertilisation of 2 oocytes by different sperms concurrently?

Dizygotic twins

22

How many days after fertilisation does the zygote implant into the endometrium?

5-6th day

23

What is the test that checks the presence of genetic disorders such as Down syndrome and haemophiliacs?

Amniocentesis

24

After fertilization, what is the zygote called for the next 2 months?

Embryo

25

What does the term 'show' refer to?

Discharge of cervical mucous plug

26

What is an IUD?

A copper T intrauterine device that prevents the attachment of a fertilised ovum to the endometrium

27

What is a breech presentation?

When foetus is born feet first

28

What is Wharton's jelly?

A thick jelly like substance in the umbilical cord that prevents it from kinking.

29

What is amenorrhea?

Total absence of menstruation

30

What is the hormone that is present to indicate pregnancy?

HCGh

31

The ability of a male to ejaculate is to due which muscle?

The action of the ischiocavernosus muscle

32

Name the two layers of the endometrium and the roles.

1. Stratum functionalis (functional layer)- changes in response to ovarian hormone cycles and is shed during menstruation.
2. Stratum basalis (basal layer)- forms new functionalis after menstruation, unresponsive to ovarian hormones.