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Flashcards in Reproductive physiology Deck (54)
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1
Q

What does progesterone do for a pregnancy?

A

maintains it

2
Q

In the male, LH stimulates production of testosterone by ___ cells

A

leydig

3
Q

What is the fate of testosterone and androstenedione in adipose tissue?

A

testosterone and androstenedione are converted to estrogen in adipose tissue by the enzyme aromatase.

4
Q

What is the function of inhibin in males?

A

it inhibits FSH release from the anterior pituitary

5
Q

Name the hormone that promotes development of the follicle.

A

FSH

6
Q

The graffian follicle matures when?

A

the proliferative phase day 0-14

7
Q

What are the s/sx of menopause?

A

HAVOC- hot flashes, atrophy of vagina, osteoporosis, coronary artery disease

8
Q

When in the menstrual cycle is the luteal phase?

A

days 15-28

9
Q

LH levels are normally ___ during childhood and, in women, ___ after menopause.

A

low; high

10
Q

What does progesterone do to sperm travel?

A

creates thick cervical mucus that inhibits sperm entry into uterus

11
Q

From the second month of pregnancy, the placenta releases large amounts of ___. This hormone appears to be instrumental in breast, nipple and areola growth before birth.

A

human placental lactogen

12
Q

The syncytiotrophoblast secretes which two hormones?

A

hCG and progesterone

13
Q

What is the most common site of fertilization?

A

ampulla

14
Q

What is a common sign of prolactinoma?

A

amenorrhea

15
Q

What is the average age of menopause?

A

51 (earlier in smokers)

16
Q

How does progesterone effect gonadotropins?

A

inhibits (LH, FSH)

17
Q

Name the hormone that can cause a surge in LH.

A

estrogen

18
Q

In the female, an acute rise of LH-the ‘LH surge”-triggers ____.

A

ovulation

19
Q

When in the menstrual cycle is the menstrual phase?

A

days 1 to 4

20
Q

Where is progesterone synthesized?

A

corpus luteum, placenta, adrenal cortex. testes

21
Q

What stimulates the ovaries to produce progesterone and estrogen?

A

LH and FSH

22
Q

List the following hormones in order of potency: estrone, striol, estradiol.

A

most to least-

estradiol>estrone>estriol

23
Q

What is the function of LH male spermatogenesis?

A

stimulates testosterone release from leydig cells.

24
Q

T/F: In both males and females, LH is essential for reproduction.

A

true

25
Q

Name five functions of androgens.

A
  1. differentiation of wolffian duct system into internal gonadal structures
  2. secondary sex characteristics and growth spurt
  3. required for normal spermatogenesis
  4. anabolic effects (increase in muscle size, increase in RBC production
  5. libido
26
Q

Age linked decline in number of ovarian follicles is associated with decline in what hormone?

A

estrogen

27
Q

What hormone maintains of the endometrium?

A

progesterone

28
Q

What does progesterone do to body temperature?

A

increases body temperature

29
Q

What does progesterone do to uterine smooth muscle?

A

relaxes uterine muscle

30
Q

What is the physiological stimulus for prolactin release?

A

suckling

31
Q

Name the special cells of the seminiferous tubules that produce a hormone that causes the pituitary to decrease its release of FSH and LH. Also, name the hormone.

A

sertoli cells produce inhibin

32
Q

Where is FSH produced?

A

gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary

33
Q

In breastfeeding, the act of an infant suckling the nipple stimulates the production of ____, which fills the breast with milk

A

prolactin

34
Q

How do sertoli cells decrease FSH production?

A

sertoli cell stimulated by FSH produce inhibin, which decreases FSH production in the anterior pituitary.

35
Q

When in the menstrual cycle is the folicular (proliferative) phase?

A

days 4 to 14

36
Q

What is the function of FSH in male spermatogenesis?

A

stimulates sertoli cells to produce ABP and inhibin, stimulates sperm production

37
Q

The release of the hormone _____ leads to the milk ejection or let-down reflex.

A

oxytocin

38
Q

The release of LH at the pituitary gland is controlled by pulses of ___ from the hypothalamus. Those pulses, in turn, are subject to the ___ feedback from the gonads.

A

gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH); estrogen

39
Q

What does prolactin do to GnRH and what does this mean clinically?

A

inhibits synthesis and release therefore inhibiting ovulation

40
Q

Name five target organ/structures of androgens.

A

skin, prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis, liver, muscle, and brain

41
Q

When does the progesterone surge occur during the menstrual cycle?

A

during the secreoty phase- days 14-21

42
Q

T/F: In both males and females, FSH is essential for reproduction.

A

true

43
Q

What is the sequence of hormone surges prior to ovulation?

A

estrogen surge, then LH surge along with FSH surge

44
Q

What is the function of the ABP (androgen binding protein) in males?

A

ensures that testosterone in seminiferous tubule is high

45
Q

Does dopamine inhibit or increase prolactin?

A

prolactin increases dopamine synthesis and secretion from the hyothalamus, which then inhibits prolactin secretion

46
Q

What does increased progesterone indicate during the menstrual cycle?

A

ovulation

47
Q

How does FSH promote spermatogenesis?

A

FSH enhances the production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes.

48
Q

What are the hormonal changes during menopause? (4)

A

decreased estrogen, increased FSH, increased LH (but no surge), increased GnRH

49
Q

How do mature follicles decrease FSH production?

A

as the follicle matures, on becomes dominant. It releases inhibin and estradiol, both of which decrease FSH production by inhibiting GnRH production in the hypothalamus.

50
Q

Name the structure of the testes where sperm cells mature

A

epididymis

51
Q

Name the special cells of the seminiferous tubules that produce a hormone that promotes secondary sex characteristics. Also, name the hormone.

A

leydig cells produce testosterone.

52
Q

What is the chief symptom of an FSH deficient state in females? in males?

A

in females, cessation of reproductive cycles is commonly observed. This condition is typically manifested in males as failure in production of normal numbers of sperm.

53
Q

What does estrogen do to LH?

A

causes LH surge. feedback switches from negative to positive just before LH surge.

54
Q

What does the seminal vesicles secrete?

A

alkaline fluid