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Flashcards in Research Deck (111):
1

AAOHN supports research by...

1. Encouraging participation
2. Providing resources to conduct research
3. Publishing research in AAOHN Journal

2

Occupational and environmental health nurse engages in research through activities such as...

1. Identifying researchable problems
2. Designing and conducting research
3. Disseminating research findings
4. Writing research grant proposals
5. Collaborating with other disciplines

3

ANA Standards of Clinical Nusing Practice standard related to research

Standard VII

4

Research roles for associate degree/diploma nurse

1. Identifies clinical problems for research
2. Assists in the development of the research and data collection activities
3. Uses research as a basis for clinical practice

5

Research roles for baccalaureate nurse:

1. Evaluates research for applicability to practice
2. Works with skilled researchers to develop research projects
3. Uses research to refine and extend the practice
4. Discusses research findings with colleagues

6

Research role of master's nurse

1. Provides expertise related to the research problem, care delivery and the research process
2. Analyzes the practice problems within the context of the scientific process
3. Collaborates with other disciplines in scientific investigations
4. Supports the conduct of research
6. Disseminates research findings
7. Encourages the integration of research into practice
8. Contributes to an environment supportive of nursing research

7

Research role of doctoral nurse

1. Develops and conducts independent and collaborative investigations with other scientists
2. Develops methodologies such as survey tools or research protocols for scientific inquiry into phenomena relevant to the practice
3. Uses analytical methods and integrates findings to explain and extend scientific knowledge to nursing practice
4. Develops and tests interventions to improve worker health and safety
5. Acquires research grant support
6. Disseminates findings
7. Provides leadership for integrating research findings into practices

8

Purposes of research in occupational and environmental health

1. Help identify and solve problems relevant to nursing practice
2. Improve the effectiveness of nursing care through scientific inquiry using a systematic process
3. Advance the body of knowledge in the occupational and environmental health nursing discipline

9

To protect all study participants' rights, the investigator must provide participants with the following:

1. Description of study purpose
2. Discussion of risks and benefits; informal consent
3. Assurance of confidentiality (and of anonymity, where appropriate)
4. Specification of a contact person

10

------- to participate must be obtained from each study participant

Consent

11

Consent usually covers an explanation of:

1. The study
2. Procedures used
3. Risks
4. Invasion of privacy
5. Methods used to protect the identity of the participants

12

Anonymity

Protection of participants in a study such that even the researcher cannot link the participants with the information collected

13

Confidentiality

Protection of participants in a study such that their identities will not be linked to the information they provide and that individually identifiable information collected will not be divulged

14

Risks and benefits

A description of any risk involved related to the research such as potential harm from needlestick during blood collection or invasion of privacy

15

Consent is usually obtained by:

1. Written statement from participants
2. May be described by the researcher in a cover letter notifying participants to voluntarily return survey forms- return of the survey implies consent

16

Research is usually approved by an etcs committee commonly referred to as:

An institutional review board (IRB)

17

Purpose of IRB

Oversee the ethical treatment of study participants and assess the study's impact on them

18

It is the IRB's responsibility to:

1. Evaluate and determine if any research-related risks are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits of research
2. Determine if adequate procedures and safeguards are in place to ensure privacy and confidentiality, including informed consent procedures, particularly for vulnerable populations
3. Approve or disapprove the research or ask that modifications be made

19

Steps in the research process

1. Formulate the problem
2. Review the literature
3. Develop a theoretical framework
4. Formulate a hypothesis/ questions
5. Identify research variables
6. Operationalize variables
7. Select research design
8. Specify population
9. Conduct pilot studies
10. Select sample
11. Collect data
12. Organize data for analysis
13. Analyze data
14. Interpret results
15. Communicate findings

20

Steps in identification of the problem

1. The problem that is identified should consist of a situation that needs a solution and that will contribute to improving practice
2. The problem is relevant to contemporary nursing practice and is stated clearly and precisely
3. Research of the problem will contribute to the body of nursing knowledge
4. Research of the problem will explain, describe and predict behaviors, and will test strategies or interventions to modify or improve outcomes

21

Steps to indicating the significance of the study

1. The research problem needs to address the "so what?" question
2. The importance of the problem should be explained by describing its critical characteristics, pointing out gaps in the literature and presenting possible solutions

22

The literature is discussed to help the researcher......

Critically evaluate existing research and provide a context or frame of reference for the study

23

Literature sources may include:

1. Previous studies relevant to clinical or substantive articles
2. Conceptual or theoretical understanding
3. Methadologic readings

24

When conducting a literature search the researcher can use several resources:

1. Print indexes
2. Electronic databases
3. Consult with a reference librarian

25

In any search items that can be used to identify articles that may be valuable

1. Key words
2. Text words
3. Subject headings

26

Common electronic databases used in occupational and environmental health

1. CINAHL
2. MEDLINE
3. TOXNET
4. EMBASE
5. NIOSH TIC
6. TOXLINE
7. HSDB
8. RTECS

27

CINAHL

Cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature

28

MEDLINE

Medical literature on-line

29

TOXNET

Toxicology database

30

EMBASE

Exerpta Medica

31

NIOSH TIC

NIOSH database

32

TOXLINE

Toxicology

33

HSDB

Hazardous substance database

34

RTECS

Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances

35

When critiquing a research study, the following should be considered:

1. Clarity, logic and understandability of the study
2. Currency of the study and its applicability to practice
3. Strength of questions and hypotheses and that they are addressed in the analysis
4. Theoretical framework, if used
5. Appropriate design, sample and interpretation of findings
6. Protection of participants rights
7. Limitations

36

Literature should be....

Analyzed and synthesized

37

The problem statement does the following:

1. Introduces the topic
2. Explains the importance of the problem
3. States what the research intends to study

38

The problem statements may be grounded within a...

1. Theoretical framework
2. Conceptual framework

39

Theoretical framework

Links and explains the relationships among different theories

40

Conceptual framework

Building block of theories

41

Type of study that is not sufficiently developed to have a theoretical or conceptual framework

Descriptive study

42

Three types of questions:

1. Type I research question: expression of a single concept with the stem beginning with "what". Little or no knowledge about this topic exists
2. Type II research question: examines relationships between tow or more concepts or variables
3. Type III research question: builds on type I and II questions and examines a causal relationship using an experimental design. Asks why.

43

Hypotheses require....

A theoretic basis and are used to test an idea

44

A hypothesis suggests.....

A relationship among two or more variables and is used when the researchers can predict an outcome

45

Conceptual definitions

Explain interrelationships among concepts

46

The relationship between self esteem and eating disorders is an example of what type of definition

Conceptual definition

47

Operational definitions

Guide the implementation of the study

48

An occupational an environmental health nurse can be defined as a registered nurse who provides for and delivers health and safety services to employees, employee populations and community groups. This is an example of what type of definition?

Operational definition

49

Designs fall into two major categories:

1. Experimental designs
2. Nonexperimental designs

50

Experimental designs

Are used to test research hypotheses and infer causal relationships

51

A true experiment requires....

Random assignment of participants, a control group and manipulation of a treatment or intervention

52

Quasi-experimental designs

Include manipulation of the treatment or intervention; however this design lacks either a control group or random assignment of participants

53

Preexperimental designs

Manipulate the variable or treatment in only one group (ie no comparison or randomization), and measure the effect

54

Nonexperimental designs

Are used when the research does not support an experiment (eg survey)

55

Two categories of nonexperimental studies:

1. Descriptive studies
2. Ex post facto

56

Descriptive studies

Are designed to observe and describe the phenomenon under investigation and are not concerned with relational variables

57

Ex post facto research

Sometimes called correlational

Examines relationships between variable (that have already occurred) and implies a correlation

58

Types of variables

1. Dependent variable
2. Independent variable

59

Dependent variable

This is the study variable under investigation

Aka outcome variable

60

Independent variable

This is the variable that is presumed to have an effect or influence on the dependent variable.

In an experimental design it is the treatment or intervention

61

What is the dependent variable in the following situation?

Is absenteeism higher among workers who work straight or rotating shifts?

Absenteeism

62

What is the independent variable in the following situation?

Is absenteeism higher among workers who work straight or rotating shifts?

Shift work

63

Reliability of an instrument

Is its degree of consistency in measuring responses of the attribute under study

64

Types of reliability measurements include

1. Stability
2. Internal consistency
3. Equivalence

65

Stability

Refers to the extent to which the same results are obtained on repeated administrations of the instrument

Aka test-retest

66

Internal consistency

Wherein all of items included measure a certain attribute, not some other tangential attribute

67

Equivalence

Wherein the instrument produces the same (or equivalent) results when administered by to different observers or raters

68

Validity

Refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure

69

Examples of validity include:

1. Content validity
2. Criterion-related validity

70

Content validity

Is concerned with e shaming adequacy of the content area being measured

71

Criterion-related validity

Focuses on the relationship or correlations between the instrument and some outside criterion

72

An instrument to measure self performance would be validated by manager ratings

This is an example of what type of validity?

Criterion-related

73

The target population includes...

All persons who fit the characteristics the researcher wants to study and to who the results can be generalized

74

The population sample size needs to be.....

Adequate within the context of the design and problem under investigation

75

Use the largest sample population to....

Provide for more representation of the population under study

76

Smaller population samples are....

Less accurate estimates of the population

77

Effect size

A statistical expression of the relation between two variables or the magnitude of difference between groups

78

The sample size must be large enough to.....

Satisfy the statistical tests being used

79

Types of sampling:

1. Probability sampling
2. Nonprobability sampling

80

Probability sampling

All elements or subjects have an equal chance of being included

81

Types of probability samples include:

1. Random
2. Stratified random
3. Systematic random
4. Clusters

82

Nonprobability sampling

Participant selection is not based on chance (eg participants are volunteers)

83

Types of nonprobability sampling

1. Convenience
2. Quota
3. Purposive
4. Snowball

84

------------- is more representative of the population

Probability sampling

85

The results of studies that rely on probability sampling are...

Less subject to bias and can be generalized more easily

86

Data collection

This is the phase of the studies wherein the researcher gathers the data specific to the purpose and questions

87

Methods for data collection

1. Interview
2. Questionnaire
3. Observation
4. Physiologic
5. Record review
6. Focus group

88

Interview

A generally structured approach with specific or open ended questions that can be asked face to face or via the telephone

89

Questionnaire

a written response to survey items, using a structured format that typically uses a scale (eg strongly agree to strongly disagree or a yes/no response) or open ended questions

90

Observation

Systematic observation of participants and recording of data for later analysis

91

Physiologic data collection

Methods for measurement biophysiologic data, such as blood and urine samples, electrocardiograms

92

Record review

Gathering data from charts related to specific indices or criteria under investigation

93

Focus group

A group interview with participants assembled to answers questions on a given topic

94

Data analysis

During this phase, the researcher examines the data using statistical approaches, analyzes relationships between the data and the research questions, and forms conclusions and recommendations

95

Quantitative data

Provide descriptive statistics and comparative analysis about phenomena measured at the nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio levels

96

The higher the level of measurement of quantitative data the......

More powerful the results

97

Nominal level of measurement

Lowest level

Is simply the assignment of numbers to classify data into mutually exclusive categories

98

Ordinal level

Measurement involves the sorting of elements on the basis of their relative standing to each other, yielding a ranking

99

Interval level

Measurement yields equivalent distance between numerical values on scales

100

Ratio level measurement

Highest level

Permits numerical calculations or operations and has an absolute zero

101

Types of data analysis

1. Quantitative data
2. Qualitative data
3. Descriptive analysis
4. Inferential analysis

102

Qualitative data

Provides descriptions about phenomena and help generate hypotheses

103

Descriptive analysis

Discusses what was found in the study

104

Common descriptions include:

1. Frequency distributions presented in tables or graphs that report the overall summary of group characteristics
2. Summary of a group's characteristics when describing ages, educational levels etc.

105

Examples of summary of group's characteristics

1. Mean
2. Range
3. Standard deviation

106

Mean

Average

107

Range

Highest score minus the lowest score in a given distribution

108

Standard deviation

Degree to which score deviate from each other

109

Inferential analysis

Begins to specify relationships between variables

110

Steps for interpretation of findings

1. Clearly state the answers to research questions, which hypotheses were supported or not supported, and formulate conclusions and recommendations
2. Discuss findings within the context of the practice discipline and suggest future research
3. State to whom the findings are generalized, paying attention to how the sample was selected

111

AAOHN's Standards of Occupational and Environmental Health Nursing related to research

Standard X

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