Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (13):
What is the acronym for carrots should come mashed with swede under roast potatoes in relation to statistical tests?
Chi-Square, Sign Test, Chi-Square, Mann Whitney U, Wilcoxon, Spearman's rho, Unrelated T-Test, Related T Test, Pearson's r
Evaluate Repeated Measures Design
❌may include order effects such as weak performance as ppts may do worse on second test because they experience boredom effect of doing same test again. Or they may do better as they've guessed the aim of the study
✅ Counterbalancing is a way to deal with repeated measures
Evaluate independent groups design
❌researcher cannot control effects of ppts variables e.g. different abilities. For eg ppts in group A may have better memory than B and this would act as a confounding variable
❌needs more ppts than repeated measures to end up with the same data
✅randomly allocate ppts into conditions which evenly distribute ppt variables
Evaluate matched pairs design
❌very time consuming and difficult to match participants on key variables as researchers may start with a large group of ppts to ensure they obtain matched pairs.
✅restrict the amount of variables to match on to make it easier or conduct pilot study to consider key variables that might be important to match.
Used to deal with extraneous factors caused by order effects when using repeated measures design. For example, rather than all 30participants completing both conditions, we would split them up.
15 of them would complete condition A and then condition B and the other 15 participants would complete condition B and then A.
The order effects would be balanced out by the opposing half participants due to the fact that they were split up rather than all 30 participants doing the same thing
What is lab experiment and how can we evaluate it
investigate casual relationship between and IV and DV under controlled conditions
✅well controlled, extraneous/confounding variables are minimised. High internal validity allowing easy replication demonstrating external validity
❌artificial setting and ppts may know they're being studies. Materials may lack mundane realism and ppts may not act naturally leading to low ecological validity
What is field experiment and how can we evaluate it
investigate casual relationship between IV and DV in more natural surroundings
✅less artificial, high in mundane realism and ecological validity as ppts are not usually aware they're being studied
❌less control of extraneous variables therefore reducing internal validity. More time consuming and expensive
What is natural experiment and how can we evaluate it
investigate casual relationship between IV and DV in situations where IV cannot be directly manipulated.
✅allows research where IV can't be manipulated for ethical reasons. Allows studying of real problems = high mundane realism and ecological validity
❌cannot demonstrate causal relationship between IV and DV because IV is not manipulated
What is quasi experiment and how can we evaluate it
investigate casual relationship between IV and DV in situations where IV is a characteristic of a person (something we can't change e.g. gender)
✅allows comparison of all types of people
❌ppts may be aware they're being studied and this reduces internal validity
Explain opportunity sample with strength and weakness
Explain random sample with strength and weakness
Explain stratified sample with strength and weakness