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AQA a-level psychology research methods > Research methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research methods Deck (43)
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How do you define falsifiability?

the principle that the theory cannot be considered scientific unless it admits the possibility of being untrue.


How do you define objectivity?

means the state or quality of being true even outside of a subjects individual biases, interpretations, feelings and imaginings.


How do you define replicability?

the extent to which scientific procedures and findings can be repeated by other researchers.


What are the 4 types of experiments?

laboratory, field, quasi and natural,


Description of a laboratory experiment...

where variables are controlled or manipulated in an artificial setting.


Description of a field experiment...

it is carried out in a natural setting but the researcher manipulates the IV.


Description of a quasi-experiment...

the IV is naturally occurring but the DV may be measured in a lab


Description of a natural experiment...

carried out in a completely natural setting, no manipulation from the researcher.


Identify two strengths and weaknesses for a lab exp

easily replicated and has high ecological validity.
artificial material means less like real life and pps are aware that they are being studied.


Identify two strengths and weaknesses for a field exp

higher mundane realism and ecological validity also less demand characteristics along with replicability.
ethical issues and difficult to control extraneous variables.


Identify two strengths and weaknesses for a natural exp

enables psychologists to study real problems and allows research where IV cant be manipulated for ethical reasoning.
random allocation is not possible and it cannot demonstrate casual relationships.


Identify two strengths and weaknesses for a quai-exp

allows comparisons
only used where conditions vary naturally, reduction of internal validity from being aware of being studied, artificial task.


What are pilot studies?

small scale run of the research designed to highlight any obvious issues with research before it is done


Why are pilot studies used?

help to minimize demand characteristics, examine feasibility, increase likelihood of success.


How do you define an independent variable?

is the characteristic of a psychology experiment that is manipulated or changed.


How do you define an dependent variable?

is the variable that is being measured or tested in an experiment.


How do you define an confounding variable?

is an outside influence that changes the effect of a dependent and independent variable.


How do you define an extraneous variable?

are problems that will occur in both conditions, often can not be controlled.


What are the four types of hypothesis?

experimental, null, directional and non-directional.


How do you define an experimental hypothesis?

it is used for statistical reasons


How do you define an null hypothesis?

it is a statement of no difference or no relationship


How do you define an directional hypothesis?

will state the exact direction of the experiment


How do you define an non-directional hypothesis?

will state that there will be a difference in each condition but not in which direction it will occur.


How can researchers prevent demand characteristics and investigator effects in psychological research?

single-blind technique, double blind technique, experimental realism.


What is the single-blind technique?

the participant is not aware of the research aims or of which condition the experiment they are receiving.
prevents the pps from seeking cues about the aims and reacting to them.


What is the double-blind technique?

both the participant and the the person conducting the experiment are 'blind' to the aims//hypothesis.


What is experimental realism?

the researcher makes an experimental task sufficiently engaging the participant pays attention to the task and not the fact that they are being observed.


How do you collect a random sample? Along with the strengths and weaknesses if it.

obtain a list of everyone, computer randomizer, select the number of names required.
it is unbiased but time consuming.


How do you collect an opportunity sample? Along with the strengths and weaknesses if it.

recruit those ppl who are most available/convenient.
shortest time n]and easiest method but it is inevitably biased.


How do you collect a stratified sample? Along with the strengths and weaknesses if it.

subgroups within the population, pps are obtained from each of the subgroup in proportion to their occurrence in the population.
more representative but very time consuming to identity subgroups.