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AQA: A Level Psychology Paper 2 > Research Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (84)
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1

Aim [definition]:

A statement of what the researcher intends to find out in a research study.
For example: Investigating the effect of caffeine on memory

2

Debriefing [definition]:

A post-research interview designed to inform participants of the true nature of the study and to restore them to the state they were at the start of the study

3

How is debriefing useful? [2]:

- It is a means of dealing with ethical issues
- Can be used to get feedback on the procedures of the study

4

Independent variable [definition]:

The variable that changes in an experiment

5

Dependent variable [definition]:

Dependent on the independent variable

6

Control variable [definition]:

The one that doesn't change

7

Confounding Variable [definition]:

A variable under the study that is not the IV but varies systematically with the IV

8

Extraneous variables [3]:

- Do not vary systematically with the IV
- They do not act as an alternative IV but instead have an effect on the DV
- They are nuisance variables

9

Internal validity [definition]:

The degree to which an observed effect was due to the experimental manipulation rather than other factors such as confounding/extraneous variables

10

External validity [definition]:

The degree to which a research finding can be generalised to other settings (ecological validity)

11

Validity vs Reliability:

Reliability = consistency of a measure
Validity= accuracy of a measure

12

Confederate [2]:

An individual in a study who has been instructed how to behave, by the researcher
- In stanford prison experiment

13

Directional hypothesis [2]:

- States the direction of the predicted difference between two conditions
- example: Women will have higher scores than men will on Hudson's self-esteem scale

14

Non-directional hypothesis [2]:

- Predicts simply that there is a difference between conditions of the iv
- There will be no difference between men's scores and women's scores on Hudson's self-esteem scale

15

Pilot study [definition]:

- A small-scale trial run of a study to test any aspects of the design, to make improvements before the final study

16

When do psychologists use a directional hypothesis?

When past research suggests that the findings will go in a particular direction

17

When is a non-directional hypothesis used?

When there is no past research on the topic studied or past research is contradictory

18

What are 3 types of experimental design?

- Repeated measure design
- Independent measure design
- Matched pairs design

19

Repeated measures design [3]:

ALL participants experience ALL levels of the IV
+ Participant variables are reduced since its the same person
+ Fewer people are needed as they take part in all conditions

20

Limitations of repeated measure design [2]:

- Order effects e.g getting tired. Can be avoided by using counterbalance
- Participants may guess the aim of the experiment and behave a certain way e.g purposely do worse in the second half. Can be avoided by using a cover story

21

Independent measure design [2]:

Participants are placed in separate groups and only experience one level of the IV each
+ Avoids order effects

22

Limitations of independent measure design [2]:

- Participant variables e.g different abilities or characteristics [participants are randomly allocated]
- Needs more participants than repeated measure

23

Matched pairs design [3]:

Participants are matched by key characteristics or abilities, related to the study
+ Reduces participant variables because the researcher has tried to pair up the participants so that each condition has people with similar abilities and characteristics
+ Reduces order effects

24

Limitations of matched pairs design [3]:

- If one participant drops out you lose 2 PPs’ data
- Very time-consuming trying to find closely matched pairs
- Impossible to match people exactly

25

Lab experiments [3]:

- Conducted in a controlled environment
- The researcher decides where the experiment will take place, at what time, with which participants, in what circumstances
- Researcher manipulates the IV

26

lab experiment examples [2]:

- Milgram’s experiment on obedience
- Bobo's doll

27

Strengths of lab experiments [2]:

- It is easier to replicate. This is because standard procedure is being used
- They allow for precise control of extraneous and independent variables

28

Weaknesses of lab experiments [2]:

- The artificiality of the setting may produce unnatural behavior that does not reflect real life (low ecological validity)
- The artificiality of the setting may produce unnatural behavior that does not reflect real life

29

Field experiments [3]:

- Conducted in the participant's everyday setting
- Researcher manipulates the IV, but in a real-life setting (so cannot really control extraneous variables
- example: Hofling's hospital study on obedience (involves medicine cabinet used by nurses in hospital and tested nurses)

30

Strengths of field studies [2]:

- Behavior in a field experiment is more likely to reflect real life because of its natural setting
- There is less likelihood of demand characteristics affecting the results, as participants may not know they are being studied (in covert experiments)