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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (23):
0

Respiratory quotient

- carbs and protein similar
- fats nearly double ( mainly as more H's)
- red blood cells& brains cell only use glucose
- heart about 70% lipids

1

Respiratory substrate

- a substance that can be oxidised in respiration to release energy for the synthesis of ATP
- such as lipids (hydrolysed at glycolysis and link)
- proteins (hydrolysed link and krebs)

2

Alcoholic fermentation

- in yeast cells
- pyruvate -> pyruvate decarboxylase (loss of co2) -> ethanal -> ethanol dehydrogenase (NADred- NAD)

3

Lactate fermentation

- normally in muscle cells
- if conc builds up in blood = nauseous
- hepatocytes turn it back into pyruvate
- requires O2
- pyruvate-> lactate (NADred-> NAD) using lactate dehydrogenase

4

Why anaerobic respiration takes place

- O2 is final electron acceptor
- no O2
- electron carriers cant pass their electrons
- cant accept any more from NADred
- link & krebs cant take place

5

Anaerobic respiration

- the partial oxidation of glucose to produce a small amount of energy
- it involves glycolysis followed by either lactate/ ethanol pathway

6

ATP production from respiration

- 2 FADred = 4 ATP
- 10 NADred = 26 ATP
- per glucose = 34 ATP
- unlikely as
- some protons leak across membrane lowering proton motive force
- some ATP used to actively transport pyruvate into mitochondria
- some ATP to move NADred from cytoplasm to mitochondria

7

Chemiosmosis evidence

- peter mitchell's theory
- PH higher on the side of the membrane where ETC is shows active transport of H+
- membranes can produce ATP if not ETC as long as a PH gradient
- chemicals that stop H+ movement stop ATP production
- ie diniteophenol - carrier

8

ATP synthesis

- e along ETC
- H+ from matrix to inter membrane space = PH gradient
- H+ through ATP synthase = ATP + H2O

9

Chemiosmosis

- the way in which the diffusion if H+ down a concentration gradient across a membrane provides energy for ATP synthesis

10

Electron transport chain (oxidative phosphorylation)

NADred -> e - q reductase - electron carrier-> H+ and oxidised NAD -> e +O2 + H+ -> H2O

11

Electron transport chain

- a series of molecules that successfully gain and release electrons from coenzymes as the electron is passsed along it loses energy that is used to synthesis ATP
- inner memberane of the mitochondria

12

Krebs cycle

- in the matrix
- oxaloacetate (4c) -> + acetyl-> citrate (6c) -> (lose co2 + NADred) -> 5c -> (lose co2 + NADred) -> 4c -> FADred + ADP-ATP -> (lose NADred) -> oxaloacetate

13

Oxidative phosphorylation

- the production of ATP via the electron transport chain in a mitochondria using oxygen

14

Substrate level phosphorylation

- the production of ATP directly from a reaction in the krebs cycle & glycolysis not involving the ETC

15

The link reaction

- in the matrix
- pyruvate is decarboxylated and oxidised
- combines with CoA
- produces 2NADred and 2CO2

16

Matrix

- the background material in a mitochondria
- where the link reaction & krebs cycle take place

17

Cristae

- folds in the inner membrane of a mitochondria
- where the ETC takes place

18

Mitochondria

- outer and inner membrane forming the envelope
- folded inner membrane = cristae
- 'background material' = the matrix

19

Pyruvate

- product of glycolysis
- 3 carbon molecule
- start of anaerobic respiration
- moved into the mitochondria by active transport to the matrix

20

Glycolysis

- in the cell cytoplasm
- produces 2ATP and 2NADred
- glucose -> + ATP -> Glucose-6-p -> isomerase -> fructose-6-p -> + ATP -> hexose1,6-bisphosphate-> 2x triose phosphate -> - 2ATP -2NADred -> 2x intermediate-> -2ATP -> 2x pyruvate

21

ATP

- Adenosine triphosphate
- energy currency
- 3 phosphate groups
- 5 carbon ribose sugar
- nitrogen containing compound adenine
- removing 1 phosphate group = 30.5kj (hydrolysis with ATPase)
- releases energy quick, easy, the right size and the right place

22

Respiration

- the release of chemical energy from glucose or other respiratory substrates by oxidation
- to mainly produce ATP
- in all living cells
- for active transport, metabolic reactions and protein synthesis