Flashcards in Respiration Deck (15)
What do both types of respiration produce?
What is ATP used for in living organisms?
-to drive the chemical reactions needed to keep organisms alive
-for cell division
-to maintain constant temperature conditions in cells and the body – homeostasis
-to move molecules against concentration gradients in active transport
-for the transmission of nerve impulses
Where in a cell does respiration take place?
inside mitochondria. These reactions are controlled by enzymes
What are the main differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration?
-Aerobic requires oxygen, anaerobic does not
-aerobic provides more energy than anaerobic because glucose is not fully broken down in anaerobic, so much less energy is released
What is the word equation for aerobic respiration in living organisms?
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + ATP (energy)
What is the balanced chemical equation for aerobic respiration in living organisms?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (energy)
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants and in animals?
Glucose --> Lactic acid + Carbon Dioxide + ATP (energy)
Label a diagram of the thorax
What happens during ventilation? (inhalation and exhalation)(include what happens to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles)
-External intercostal muscles contract, internal intercostal muscles relax.
-rib cage moves up and out
-diaphragm is pushed downwards (flattens and contracts)
-volume inside the thoracic cavity increases
-pressure inside the thoracic cavity decreases (as it is lower than the atmosphere) as air moves into the lungs
-External intercostal muscles relax, internal intercostal muscles contract
-rib cage moves down and in
-diaphragm relaxes into its domed shape, pushing up into the lungs
-volume inside the thoracic cavity decreases
-pressure inside the thoracic cavity increases, as it is higher than the atmosphere as air moves out of the lungs
How are the alveoli adapted for gas exchange by diffusion between air in the lungs and blood in the capillaries?
-thin permeable walls which minimises diffusion distance between air and blood
-moist lining in which the gases dissolve before they diffuse across the cell membranes
-a large surface area- there are 100s of millions of alveoli in a human lung, giving a large surface area
-high concentration gradients for the gases because blood is continually flowing though the capillaries along the alveoli, delivering excess CO2 and taking additional O2, and because of the ventilation of the lungs which refreshes the air in the air sacs
What are the health consequences of smoking to the lungs?
-Tobacco smoke contains tar- a mixture of chemicals which cause a black sticky substance in the lungs.
-Tiny, hair-like cilia line the lungs, and are responsible for removing dust and microorganisms.
-Tar coats these delicate cilia, so they cannot properly function, so sticky mucus builds up in the smoker’s lungs and this can result in many lung infections and a persistent cough.
-Bronchitis can be caused by this irritation and infection
- emphysema can develop if the patient doesn’t get enough oxygen to the blood as alveoli become damaged due to coughing, as it breaks down the divisions between them, decreasing the surface area
What are the health consequences of smoking to the circulatory system?
-Some of the chemicals is tobacco smoke cause cholesterol to be released into the blood.
-Smoking also damages the lining of the arteries, including the coronary arteries which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.
-This damage allows the build-up of cholesterol in the arteries as cholesterol can attach to the lining .
-If this builds up too much, the arteries can clot, so the heart muscle is not supplied with oxygen and therefore a heart attack or stroke can occur if the clot breaks free and travels to the blood vessels in the brain.
-blood pressure also increases as nicotine is a stimulant and stimulants increase blood pressure
-also, carbon monoxide in the smoke replaces oxygen in red blood cells, meaning less oxygen can be supplied at once
-if cells don’t have enough oxygen, they can die off, which is particularly dangerous for pregnant women
What is the effect of exercise on breathing?
-Increased rate of breathing
-Increased depth of breathing
What is EPOC?
-Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption
-the amount of oxygen the body consumes after exercise that is above the pre-exercise oxygen consumption baseline, to ‘repay’ the amount of oxygen we consumed during exercise