Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (54):
A child's respiratory tract is narrower than an adult's until what age?
Young infants are what kind of nose breathers?
Obligatory nose breathers
Normal pH range
If CO2 is high/low what is root cause?
If HCO3 is high/low what is root cause?
What does "ROME" stand for?
Respiratory Opposite Metabolic Equal
Why do infants frequently get otitis media?
Infants have shorter, wider, and less angular canals
(5) ways to prevent otitis media
1) breast feed for 1st 6 months 2) Feed in upright position 3)reduce or stop paci use after 6 months 4)vaccinate 5) avoid smoke exposure
Asthma can be cured. T/F
False Asthma can only be controlled
What is the leading cause of chronic illness in children?
Astma is chronic inflammation of airways caused by,________________.
increased reaction of airways to various stimuli.
What is chronic Asthma?
1) Inflammation 2) Hypersensitivity to triggers
What is acute Asthma?
1) Swelling of airways 2) mucus production
What is the result of a bronchospasm?
narrowing of airways
What are two examples of bronchodialators commonly used in individualized management plans for asthma?
It is important to tell parents and children to do what after they use their MDI for steroids?
Wash their mouth out
What type of sports are good for children with Asthma?
Endurance sports (soccer, tennis, volleyball)
What sport should children with asthma refrain from?
Swimming, because of chemical irritants
When should a child be instructed to use their MDI regarding sports?
15-20 min prior to exercise.
Lower respiratory infection causing obstruction of small airways (bronchioles)
How is bronchiolitis spread?
How long does RSV live on surfaces?
How long does RSV line on skin?
How long is a child contagious with bronchiolitis?
When secretions are present and up to 14 days after start of symptoms
What is the incubation period for bronchiolitis?
Which children are at high risk for bronchiolitis?
Infants with hx of prematurity, infants less than 6 months of age, infants in day care.
Common interventions for children with bronchiolitis?
Suction before feeding, small frequent feeds, elevate HOB, increase fluids (IV/oral), Oxygen supplement, PPD, neb
What is the most common way that a child with carbon monoxide presents?
ROSEY perfusion, dull headache,
How do you treat carbon monoxide poisoning?
What causes bronchopulmonary dysplasia?
ventilatory support with high positive airway pressure and oxygen with in first 2 weeks of life
What are three common complications of bronchopulmonary dysplasia?
1)respiratory incufficiency 2) lower respiratory tract infections 3)hypertention
What is a common heart problem caused by bronchopulmonary dysplasia?
Right sided heart failure
What age child does croup affect?
5 and under
What are the common symptoms of croup?
1) seal bark 2)brassy cough 3) inspiratory stidor (usually starts during the night and is viral induced)
What is a possible outcome of croup?
Swelling or obstruction of lrynx
Name 5 interventions for pt with croup:
1) cool mist/hot shower 2) conservation of energy 3) racemic epi 4) corticosteroids 5 fluid/electrolyte administration
How is cystic fibrosis dx?
sweat chloride test
What is cystic fibrosis?
Autosomal recessive disorder of exocrine glands, causes thick mucous and increase in organic and enzymatic properties of saliva.
What is the cause of multiple bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis patients?
thick bronchial mucus with decreased ciliary action.
Which two infections are especially worrisome in cystic fibrosis patients?
What gastrointestinal complication arises in 7-10% of newborns with CF?
What are common gastrointestinal complications in CF patients?
Everything gets blocked/backed up, intestines, pancreatic ducts (causing increase in diabetes type 1), increase in LFTs and Gall stones.
How many stools/day is goal for CF pt?
What additional supplements do CF pt receive to help with digestion and absorption of fats?
Vitamins ADEK, with a high calorie high protein diet
True or False: It is important to give cough suppressants to CF pt?
False, coughing is good!
How do you prevent epiglottitis?
What is the cause of epiglotitis?
How does epiglotitis present itself?
Rapid onset cough, then, stidor, then distress, pt sits in tripod position and drools.
Which bronch is usually the place aspiration occurs?
Which object is listed as highest risk for aspiration?