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Pediatric Growth And Deveolpment > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (54):
1

A child's respiratory tract is narrower than an adult's until what age?

5 years

2

Young infants are what kind of nose breathers?

Obligatory nose breathers

3

Normal pH range

7.35-7.45

4

Normal HCO3

22-26

5

Normal PaO2

80-100

6

Normal PaCO2

35-45

7

If CO2 is high/low what is root cause?

Respiratory

8

If HCO3 is high/low what is root cause?

Metabolic

9

What does "ROME" stand for?

Respiratory Opposite Metabolic Equal

10

Why do infants frequently get otitis media?

Infants have shorter, wider, and less angular canals

11

(5) ways to prevent otitis media

1) breast feed for 1st 6 months 2) Feed in upright position 3)reduce or stop paci use after 6 months 4)vaccinate 5) avoid smoke exposure

12

Asthma can be cured. T/F

False Asthma can only be controlled

13

What is the leading cause of chronic illness in children?

Asthma

14

Astma is chronic inflammation of airways caused by,________________.

increased reaction of airways to various stimuli.

15

What is chronic Asthma?

1) Inflammation 2) Hypersensitivity to triggers

16

What is acute Asthma?

1) Swelling of airways 2) mucus production

17

What is the result of a bronchospasm?

narrowing of airways

18

What are two examples of bronchodialators commonly used in individualized management plans for asthma?

Zopenex/Albuterol

19

It is important to tell parents and children to do what after they use their MDI for steroids?

Wash their mouth out

20

What type of sports are good for children with Asthma?

Endurance sports (soccer, tennis, volleyball)

21

What sport should children with asthma refrain from?

Swimming, because of chemical irritants

22

When should a child be instructed to use their MDI regarding sports?

15-20 min prior to exercise.

23

Define bronchiolitis

Lower respiratory infection causing obstruction of small airways (bronchioles)

24

How is bronchiolitis spread?

Contact

25

How long does RSV live on surfaces?

1-6 hours

26

How long does RSV line on skin?

30 min.

27

How long is a child contagious with bronchiolitis?

When secretions are present and up to 14 days after start of symptoms

28

What is the incubation period for bronchiolitis?

5-8 days

29

Which children are at high risk for bronchiolitis?

Infants with hx of prematurity, infants less than 6 months of age, infants in day care.

30

Common interventions for children with bronchiolitis?

Suction before feeding, small frequent feeds, elevate HOB, increase fluids (IV/oral), Oxygen supplement, PPD, neb

31

What is the most common way that a child with carbon monoxide presents?

ROSEY perfusion, dull headache,

32

How do you treat carbon monoxide poisoning?

Give oxygen

33

What causes bronchopulmonary dysplasia?

ventilatory support with high positive airway pressure and oxygen with in first 2 weeks of life

34

What are three common complications of bronchopulmonary dysplasia?

1)respiratory incufficiency 2) lower respiratory tract infections 3)hypertention

35

What is a common heart problem caused by bronchopulmonary dysplasia?

Right sided heart failure

36

What age child does croup affect?

5 and under

37

What are the common symptoms of croup?

1) seal bark 2)brassy cough 3) inspiratory stidor (usually starts during the night and is viral induced)

38

What is a possible outcome of croup?

Swelling or obstruction of lrynx

39

Name 5 interventions for pt with croup:

1) cool mist/hot shower 2) conservation of energy 3) racemic epi 4) corticosteroids 5 fluid/electrolyte administration

40

How is cystic fibrosis dx?

sweat chloride test

41

What is cystic fibrosis?

Autosomal recessive disorder of exocrine glands, causes thick mucous and increase in organic and enzymatic properties of saliva.

42

What is the cause of multiple bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis patients?

thick bronchial mucus with decreased ciliary action.

43

Which two infections are especially worrisome in cystic fibrosis patients?

Pseudomonas/ Burkholderia(worst)

44

What gastrointestinal complication arises in 7-10% of newborns with CF?

Meconium illeus

45

What are common gastrointestinal complications in CF patients?

Everything gets blocked/backed up, intestines, pancreatic ducts (causing increase in diabetes type 1), increase in LFTs and Gall stones.

46

How many stools/day is goal for CF pt?

2-3 stools/day

47

What additional supplements do CF pt receive to help with digestion and absorption of fats?

Vitamins ADEK, with a high calorie high protein diet

48

True or False: It is important to give cough suppressants to CF pt?

False, coughing is good!

49

How do you prevent epiglottitis?

Hib vaccine

50

What is the cause of epiglotitis?

H. Influenza

51

How does epiglotitis present itself?

Rapid onset cough, then, stidor, then distress, pt sits in tripod position and drools.

52

Which bronch is usually the place aspiration occurs?

Right

53

Which object is listed as highest risk for aspiration?

Beans

54

In trach care what is the #1 rule for suction?

Do not suction longer than trach!