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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (23):
1

What is resting mean arterial blood pressure in the bronchial system?
What is this rate during exercise?

- 100 mmHg
- 220 mmHg

2

At rest breathing ambient air, what is pO2?

About 100 mmHg

3

With intense exercise, pO2 levels are around what?

pO2 = 65-70 mmHg

4

What is thoracic percussion looking for?

Looking for filled structures or densities in the thoracic cavity.

5

Where are respiratory sounds heard loudest in a horse?
Why?

- Trachea
- Turbulence

6

Are lung sounds heard louder on the right or left side?

Right side

7

What is a technique to tigger a horse to breath more heavily?

Rebreathing bag

8

What are 6 aspects of evaluating respiratory disease?

- Physical exam
- Auscultation
- TPR
- CBC
- Chemistries
- Blood gases

9

Endoscopy is used mainly for what part of the respiratory tract?

Upper respiratory tract

10

Which is the correct progressive order of respiratory structures from rostral to distal?
a) Pharynx
b) nares
c) larynx
d) trachea
e) ethmoid
f) guttural pouch
g) nasopharynx
h) nasal passage

b) nares
h) nasal passage
e) ethmoid
g) nasopharynx
f) guttural pouch
c) larynx
d) trachea

11

What are 3 types of diagnostic imaging used for horses?

- Radiographs
- Ultrasound of thorax
- Nuclear scintigraphy

12

What type of modality is used to evaluate hearts in horses?

Ultrasound

13

What is radiography commonly used for with horses?

Pulmonary parenchymal disease

14

What is nuclear scintigraphy used for in horses?

Ventilation-perfusion studies

15

What are 5 other diagnostic procedures that might be used with lower respiratory disease?

- Transtracheal wash (TTW)
- Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)
- Thoracentesis
- Lung aspirate
- Lung biopsy

16

Where is a TTW typically performed?
Above what?

- Approximately at junction of middle and distal third of neck.
- Above bifurcation of sternothyrohyoideus muscle

17

Use of a rigid scope within the thorax that requires inflation of thorax and thus collapses lungs is known as what?

Pleuroscopy

18

What are 2 main ways to categorize respiratory disease cases?

- Upper vs lower
- Infectious vs non-infectious

19

T/F: Bilateral nasal discharge can be associated to upper or lower respiratory disease.

True

20

T/F: Cough is associated with upper and lower respiratory disease.

True

21

T/F: Unilateral nasal discharge is associated with upper and lower respiratory disease.

False - upper respiratory only

22

T/F: A horse can manifest a neutrophilic leukocytosis and hyper fibrinogenemia with either upper or lower respiratory disease.

True

23

What is normal pulmonary artery pressure in a horse?
What levels can be reached during exercise?

- 25-30 mmHg
- 125 mmHg